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Association of Myeloperoxidase and the Atherogenic Index of Plasma in Children with End-Stage Renal Disease

Summary

Background: The aim of this study was to explore oxidative stress status, especially the enzyme myeloperoxidase in children with end-stage renal disease. Also, we investigated possible associations between the atherogenic index of plasma and these parameters.

Methods: Lipid status parameters, oxidative stress status parameters, and myeloperoxidase concentration were measured in the sera of 20 children in the last stage of chronic renal disease (ESRD) and 35 healthy children of matching age and sex. The Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) was calculated according to the appropriate equation.

Results: We did not find any significant differences in myeloperoxidase concentrations between the investigated groups (p=0.394). Oxidative stress parameters were, however, significantly higher in the patient group (p<0.001), as well as the atherogenic index of plasma (p<0.001). Myeloperoxidase concentration and advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) concentration were independently associated with increased AIP in the patient group (p<0.05).

Conclusions: Changes in AIP in children with ERSD are associated with the oxidative stress status and myeloperoxidase concentration.

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Important Biomarkers That Play a Role in the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Process

Summary

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that includes multiple mechanisms such as inflammation, infection, smoking, hypoxia, and lack of antioxidant response can cause oxidative stress. In our study, we aimed to determine the changes in some oxidative stress [malondialdehyde and glutathione] and some cellular immunity markers (neopterin and TGF-b) in patients diagnosed with COPD and determine the damage to the organism. Methods: While the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method (Immuchrom kit, Germany) was utilized to determine MDA, GSH and NP levels, the ELISA method was used for TGF-b levels. Results: All obtained data regarding each parameter were compared with both COPD and healthy individuals and between parameters. There was a statistically significant difference between the control group of healthy subjects and COPD group in all parameters (p<0.05). A negative and correlation between oxidant MDA and antioxidant GSH parameters was determined (p=-0.394). Conclusion: As a result, it was seen that oxidative balance changed in the patient group and cellular immunity increased. When the obtained data and literature are taken into account, these changes occurring in oxidative balance and cellular immunity are of importance in determining the development in the pathogenesis of COPD, treatment op - tions and their risks for heart disease in advance.

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Influence of the Local and Systemic Oxidative Stress on Periodontitis: Role of Antioxidant Therapy

Abstract

This study was divided into experimental part of study which was conducted on 75 Wistar rats with the modeled periodontitis and and clinical part of research which included 106 patients with the chronic generalized periodontitis (CGP). The study established an importance of the oxidative stress (both local and systemic) in development and progress of the disease. It is found out that the saliva of rats with the modeled periodontitis there is the reliable increase in the content of total protein, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and malonic dialdehyde (MDA) in 1.2, 2.6 and 2.8 times respectively, with the reduced activity of catalase in 2.5 times (all p<0.05). It is determined that the gingiva tissue of rats with the modeled periodontitis has the reduced contents of total protein, collagen, elastin and sulfated glycosaminoglycans in 2.8, 1.5, 1.6 and 1.3 times respectively (all p<0.05). It is proved that the antioxidant (AO) therapy normalizes in the rat saliva the content of protein and MDA (decrease in 1,2 and 1,8 times accordingly, p<0.05) and increases the activity of catalase (in 2.5 times, p<0,05). Calcium D3 normalizes the protein content and activity of ALP (decrease in 1.2 and 1.5 times, respectively, p<0.05).

It is found out that the saliva of patients with CGP in the acute phase the content of protein, ALP and MDA increases in 1.9, 2.2 and 1.5 times accordingly (p<0,05) with the reduced catalase activity in 1,1 times (p<0,05). It is revealed that the inclusion of CGP patents in AO complex therapy results jointly with the best clinical effect in the more expressed reduction in generation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation and also the increased plasma APA.

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Utility of the chronic unpredictable mild stress model in research on new antidepressants

Abstract

Unpredictable chronic mild stress model was developed as an animal model of depression more than 20 years ago. Essential for this model is that after prolonged exposure of tested animals to a series of unpredictable mild stressors, a condition similar to anhedonia develops, which is observed in the majority of depressive disorders. Unpredictable chronic mild stress model is used nowadays in numerous studies related to the neurobiological and biochemical changes associated with depressive illness. Their results confirm that chronic unpredictable mild stress induces in tested animals a number of changes, which reflect those seen in depressive disorders. Because the effects of unpredictable chronic mild stress can be used in a more accurate diagnosis of the pathophysiology of depressive illness and expand knowledge of its pharmacotherapy, therefore research in this area has been continued all the time.

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Beneficial Effect of Chronic Treatment with Extracts from Rhodiola Rosea L. and Curcuma Longa L. on the Immunoreactivity of Animals Subjected to a Chronic Mild Stress Model

Abstract

Background: Recent studies have suggested increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in depression. Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of extracts from Rhodiola and Curcuma on immunoreactivity of animals subjected to a chronic mild stress (CMS) model followed by lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. Materials and methods: Male Wistar rats (n=56) divided in 7 groups were treated orally with: distilled water 10 ml/kg (control and CMS model groups); Rhodiola 250 mg/kg; Rhodiola 500 mg/kg; Curcuma 250 mg/kg; Curcuma 500 mg/kg, Rhodiola 250 mg/kg and Curcuma 250 mg/kg. All groups except the control were stressed daily according to a CMS protocol. Changes in glucose preference, weight gain and locomotor activity were recorded. In the sixth week the animals were challenged with LPS and rats’ sera were obtained for ELISA evaluation of TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Results: The animals from the model group decreased their weight gain, glucose preference and locomotor activity compared to controls. The groups exposed to stress and treated with Rhodiola 500 mg/kg, Curcuma 500 mg/kg and their combination increased their locomotor activity compared to the model group. High expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 were found in all groups exposed to CMS and challenged by LPS. Conclusions: The groups exposed to the stress procedure showed a variety of depression-like behavioral changes. In addition, ELISA tests showed that CMS is affecting rats’ immunity by increasing the cytokines’ levels. These changes could be reversed by administration of Rhodiola and Curcuma in combination suggesting synergic interaction regarding their anti-inflammatory and anti-stress effects.

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The Vulnerability and Resiliency of Childhood

Abstract

Life is full of stressors, which have to be confronted efficiently to grow up. However, reaction to stressors is personalized, complex and coordinated. Vulnerable persons adjust poorly to stressors and express inappropriate responses, while resilient persons practice adaptive physiological and psychological responses. Promotion of resiliency is an intricated issue, which demands strategies at both macro and micro-level. Microlevel strategies are focused on the community, family and individual level, while macrolevel strategies formulate the principles. Nevertheless, prediction of vulnerability and resiliency is really a challenge, as different persons facing same stressors react differently. Some are growing as resilient and others as vulnerable. We aimed to discuss resiliency, vulnerability, importance in relation to health outcome, promotion of resiliency and controversies of vulnerability and resiliency.

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Association between concentration of melatonin, and lipoproteins, LPO, hsCRP, NTproBNP in chronic heart failure patients

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to examine concentrations and relationships between melatonin levels assessed at 0:200 hrs and 0:700 hrs, lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) assessed at 0:200 hrs and 0:700 hrs, and apolipoprotein (apo)AI, apoAII, apoB, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and NT-proBNP, in 27 patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) (17 patients - with NYHA class II and 10 - with NYHA class III). In the study, Lipoproteins apoAI, apoAII, apoB, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels were determined by way of immunonephelometric methods, serum melatonin concentration was measured by using a competitive enzyme immunoassay technique, while serum LPO concentration was measured by using Cayman’s Lipid Hydroperoxide Assay Kit. In the study, CHF patients without acute inflammatory response demonstrated a decreased concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apoAI, apoAII levels, but an increased concentration of NT-proBNP, hsCRP and LPO at night, and LPO at daytime; however, the concentration of LPO at 0:700 was lower than at 0:200. Pearson’s correlation test and multiple ridge stepwise regression showed that melatonin administered at night exerts an effect on the composition of apoAI and apoAII of HDL particles, and induces decreased LPO at 0:700, but has no effect upon NT-proBNP levels in patients with NYHA class II. However, in patients with NYHA class III, melatonin administered at night induces an increase in the content of apoAII and apoAI, which further decreases hsCRP, and this, together with the administered melatonin, brings about daytime decreases in NT-proBNP and hsCRP levels. The results indicated that the content of apoAII and apoAI in HDL particles and melatonin demonstrate an anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect, and together, have a cardio-protective effect on patients with advanced CHF. Hence, the results support melatonin being a cardio-protective agent. These relationships, however, need to be confirmed in further studies.

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Clozapine impact on FosB/ΔFosB expression in stress preconditioned rats: response to a novel stressor

Abstract

Objective. Prolonged treatment with neuroleptics has been shown to induce FosB/ΔFosB expression in several brain regions including the medial prefrontal cortex, dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatum, ventrolateral and dorsolateral septum, nucleus accumbens shell and core, and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Some of these regions are known to be also stress responsive. This study was designed to determine whether repeated clozapine (CLZ) administration for 7 consecutive days to Wistar rats may modify FosB/ΔFosB expression in the above-mentioned brain areas induced by acute stress or novel stressor that followed 13-day chronic mild stress preconditioning.

Methods. Following experimental groups were used: unstressed animals treated with vehicle/ CLZ for 7 days; 7-day vehicle/CLZ-treated animals on the last day exposed to acute stress – forced swimming (FSW); and animals preconditioned with stress for 13 days treated from the 8th day with vehicle/CLZ and on the 14th day exposed to novel stress – FSW.

Results. In the unstressed animals CLZ markedly increased FosB/ΔFosB immunoreactivity in the ventrolateral septum and PVN. FSW elevated FosB/ΔFosB expression in the medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, and septum. CLZ markedly potentiated the effect of the FSW on FosB/ΔFosB expression in the PVN, but suppressed it in the dorsomedial striatum. Novel stress with stress preconditioning increased FosB/ΔFosB immunoreactivity in the prefrontal cortex, striatum, ventrolateral septum, and the PVN. In the nucleus accumbens the effect of the novel stressor was potentiated by CLZ.

Conclusion. Our data indicate that CLZ may modulate the acute as well as novel stress effects on FosB/ΔFosB expression but its effect differs within the individual brain regions.

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Oxidative stress-related pathophysiology in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps: research challenges

Abstract

Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is considered a multifactorial pathology with negative impact on the quality of life and considerable socio-economic effects. The pathogenesis of CRSwNP has not yet been fully elucidated despite remarkable studies in this field. This limits the pathogenic treatment and, therefore, the pathological process is expressed by a greater tendency of recurrence. Patients with recurrent CRSwNP remain in a severe state and therapeutically uncontrolled. In recent studies, the involvement of oxidative stress (OS) in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP has been more frequently mentioned. CRSwNP is considered a response of the sinonasal tissue on the inflammatory state, associated with OS and production of reactive oxygen species, causing injury to sinonasal tissues. It was demonstrated that the amount of ROS in the nasal polyp tissue corresponds to the severity of CRSwNP.

A literature review on the role of OS in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP was undertaken. The relevant information was identified using a search of electronic databases. Keywords used to highlight relevant papers were a combination of “chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps” and “oxidative stress”.

This review demonstrates that there is a strong relationship between OS and CRSwNP pathogenesis. It is hypothesized that antioxidants may have a preventive role in CRSwNP. Nevertheless, additional research is required to further evaluate the effectiveness of antioxidant therapy.

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Increased Activity of Hippocampal Antioxidant Enzymes as an Important Adaptive Phenomenon of the Antioxidant Defense System in Chronically Stressed Rats

Abstract

This study examined the effects of chronic restraint stress (CRS: 2 hours × 14 days) on gene expression of three antioxidant enzymes, copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD 1), manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD 2) and catalase (CAT) in the rat hippocampus. Also, we examined changes in the activities of SOD 1, SOD 2 and CAT in the hippocampus of chronically stressed rats. Investigated parameters were quantifi ed by using real-time RT-PCR, Western blot analysis and assay of enzymatic activity. We found that CRS did not change mRNA and protein levels of SOD 1 and CAT, but increased mRNA and protein levels of SOD 2. However, CRS treatment increased the enzyme activities of SOD 1, SOD 2 and CAT. Our fi ndings indicate that the increased activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD 1, SOD 2 and CAT) in the hippocampus may be an important adaptive phenomenon of the antioxidant defense system in chronically stressed rats.

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