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Gbolagade Benjamin Adesiji, Abraham Falola and Oladipo Gboyega Abikoye

Abstract

This study examines the contribution of the Fadama III programme to the livelihood of the vulnerable group in Kwara State, Nigeria. Results revealed that the group was made up of mainly old, less-educated, small-scale farmers, with many years of farming experience. Benefits derived from the programme by the group include input support, asset acquisition, rural infrastructure, advisory services, capacity building, increased output, and income. The major constraints faced by the group were illiteracy, pests and diseases, inadequate inputs, and untimely funding. This study suggests policy measures on how to better the livelihood of the vulnerable group of farmers.

Open access

Michal Vaněk, Lucie Krčmarská, Jana Magnusková, Lucie Kučerová and Michaela Bartošíková

Abstract

The article deals with the issues of employee benefits that influence employee motivation. Thus they participate not only in creating preconditions for company competitiveness, but also in proper running the company and/or return on investments into employees. In relation to the given questions, selected motivation theories and results of some sociological surveys connected with these problems are characterised briefly in the article as well. The focus of the article is the research into employee benefits in the Ostrava region. The authors of the article paid particular attention to the kinds of benefits provided to employees most frequently at present and how these benefits are perceived by employees themselves

Open access

Radoslav Bujnovský

Abstract

Ecosystem services (ES) (goods and services) represent the outputs of natural systems from which people can have benefits. Evaluation of the benefits resulting from ES of inland waters or the benefits, which are lost when the necessary measures are not implemented, is one of the methods of evaluating the external costs of environmental damage - environmental and resource costs. Evaluation of ES is based on the CICES classification v. 4.3, which defines provision, regulation/ maintenance and cultural services. In the assessment of ES also enters groundwater, although in comparison with surface waters in lesser extent. At present, the evaluation is performed at the level of sub-basins of the Slovak Republic. In this paper, evaluation of selected ES is presented. Use of evaluation in practice is also discussed.

Open access

Anişoara Stratu, Naela Costică and Mihai Costică

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to underline the role of some wooden species in different units of green areas in Iasi municipality in improving the quality of the environment. By regular visits in the field, we have identified the wooden species frequent in different areas; based on the bibliography in the field, we underlined the ecological characteristics, the resistance to unfavourable climate factors, and the role of these species in improving the quality of the environment. Most species taken into account are resistant to extremely cold weather and to drought; are considered resistant (Acer negundo, Acer pseudoplatanus, Hibiscus syriacus, Ligustrum vulgare) or present moderate resistance (Aesculus hippocastanum, Acer platanoides, Philadelphus coronarius) to polluting elements in the atmosphere. The wooden species considered in this study have profound influence on the environment: they regulate the urban microclimate; they contribute to the concentration reduction of some atmospheric pollutants, the noise level; they improve the edaphical conditions and contribute to the soil consolidation. Some species can be used as bio-monitors of the pollution in urban areas.

Open access

Tatjana Boshkov, Zoran Temelkov and Aleksandra Zezova

Abstract

Euroisation is a problem with a long history and usually persistent phenomena. The high level of euroisation is common in emerging countries in Europe as in the countries with fixed exchange rate regime. In Western Balkan countries have been identified a strong presence of foreign currency. The fact is that transactions could take a place outside of the banking channels, which is not a case for FX-loan and FX-deposit ratios. It’s difficult to measure how much foreign money is in the economy. This is the reason to use data for currency substitution index. This index is high for Macedonia indicating high level of real euroisation. After the crisis, the levels are reduced (lower remittances from abroad). Considering the exchange rate experience of Macedonia, it’s likely to remain significantly euroised country for an extended period. IMF considers appropriate strategy which provides support for the gradual de-euroisation in maintaining macro-prudential policy and development of the domestic market. Another important strategy is the maintenance of prudent policies that mitigate foreign currency risks. The paper shows the persistence of FX mainly in Macedonian economy and discusses about benefits and costs, in light of the recent economic crisis.

Open access

Ľudmila Leváková and Magdaléna Lacko-Bartošová

Abstract

Wheat (genus Triticum) is considered to be an important source of polyphenols, plant secondary metabolites with numerous health-promoting effects. Many phytochemicals are responsible for the high antioxidant activity of whole grain products. However, there is a lack of information about composition of phenolic acids and their concentrations in different Triticum species. Despite the fact that the increased consumption of whole grain cereals and whole grain-based products has been closely related to reduced risk of chronic diseases, bioactive compounds found in whole grain cereals have not achieved as much attention as the bioactive compounds in vegetables and fruits. Recent studies have revealed that the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of whole grain cereals have been regularly undervalued in the literature, because they contain more polyphenols and other phytochemicals than was reported in the past. Phenolic acids represent a large group of bioactive compounds in cereals. These compounds play a significant role in the possible positive effects of the human diet rich in whole grain cereals, especially in wheat and provide health benefits associated with demonstrably diminished risk of chronic disease development. Ferulic acid, the primary and the most abundant phenolic acid contained in wheat grain, is mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity of wheat, particularly bran fraction. In this paper, selected phenolic compounds in wheat, their antioxidant activity and health benefits related to consumption of whole grain cereals are reviewed.

Open access

Karen Daly, Marion Breuil, Cathal Buckley, Cathal O’ Donoghue, Mary Ryan and Catherine Seale

Abstract

This paper examines current recreational water use in the rural landscape in Ireland and reviews current EU policies and national regulations aimed at protecting water quality and the wider environment under agri-environmental schemes. Specifically, we review policy instruments that protect water for recreational use, their impacts and the challenges they pose for rural development against current requirements to increase public awareness and participation. In Ireland, there is limited experience in public participation in water quality protection and restoration and we highlight how this can be addressed by focussing on the specific contribution of water quality in rural areas in relation to the provision of recreational ecosystem services. These services provide the infrastructure for much of Ireland’s rural tourism sector. In this context, emerging participatory approaches to policy implementation are also assessed as national and local government prioritise community engagement for the second cycle under the EU Water Framework Directive.

Open access

Forbes Chiromo, Goodwell Muyengwa and Joseph Makuvaza

Abstract

This study investigates the extent to which tenants in a jewellery incubator in the Limpopo Province of South Africa network. Since 1994 SEDA has set up more than 31 incubation centres in furniture making, construction, chemicals, jewellery, ICT, metal fabrication, agriculture and small scale mining. This study was done through a survey conducted on tenants in the SEDA Limpopo Jewellery Incubator (SLJI). Information was obtained through a structured questionnaire. The study revealed how tenants benefit from networking around exhibitions and collective purchasing of raw material. Through the Incubator institutional mechanisms, the study explains how tenants share expertise, experiences, technology and resources. Unfortunately the tenants do not initiate the own networking programmes. They lose out on benefits associated with collective effort in other areas such as advertisements, lobbying the government for industrial stands, organising an newsletter, hiring of consultants, and organising joint training programmes. Lastly the study identified opportunities that the tenants could collectively exploit in order strengthen and sustain their businesses.

Open access

Małgorzata Bronikowska, Michał Bronikowski and Nadja Schott

"You Think You Are Too Old to Play?" Playing Games and Aging

Health deteriorates with age due to hormonal changes and reduced physical, mental and social activity. In turn, this deterioration can lead to a wide range of problems including a fear of undertaking any forms of physical movements. Reports from exercise-based studies indicate there might be considerable improvement with appropriately programmed exercise workloads. However, the lasting effect of such programmes seem to be doubtful as a lot of the elderly drop out along the way, sensing it to be too "organized" and too stressful. Therefore, we claim that some traditional games, as a form of physical activity, can serve its role in engaging elderly adults. They do not require high level of specialization and technical perfection and may also be useful as a form of physiotherapy, particularly with elderly individuals who suffer age- and health-related problems.

Play as a form of physical, playful activity is essential for healthy development of any individual as it seems to facilitate the linkages of language, emotion, movement, socialization and cognition. As a movement activity, it is a rather free-spirit activity that makes a positive difference in brain development and human functioning. Although rooted in biological aspects of life, play needs to be associated with cultural aspects of human development. Especially with the elderly population, this social and also cognitive stimulation is sometimes more important than physical. So in our paper we ask: what potentially positive effects can a traditional play/game have on the elderly people?

Since there has been no research on the health-related effectiveness of such games, in this article we will highlight this problem from a number of different angles as a proposal for various community-based exercise programmes. This will allow us to design and adapt those games, specially to the health needs and social interests of this particular section of the population. It is also meant to serve as a proposal for potential future research.

Open access

Ilija Djekic, Dragan Zivanovic, Sladjana Dragojlovic and Radoslava Dragovic

Abstract

Background and Purpose: The objective of this paper was to evaluate effects of implementing lean manufacturing in a Serbian confectionery production company during a period of 24 months, emphasizing observed benefits and constrains. Company ‘case study’ is a leading confectionery producer in Serbia with annual production of more than 25,000 t.

Methodology/Approach: The research method was case study. The approach in implementing lean manufacturing was structured in five phases, as follows: (i) training, (ii) analysis of lean wastes on one technological line, (iii) choice of lean tools to be implemented in the factory, (iv) implementation of lean tools in production and maintenance, (v) development of continual improvement sector and further deployment of lean tools.

Results: Lean manufacturing tools implemented in the production process were visual control and single minute exchange of dies (SMED). Maintenance process implemented 5S with total productive maintenance (TPM) and problem solving sessions being the tools implemented in both processes. During the observed period, results of these tools showed the following: visual control tables initiated 61 improvement memos out of which 39% were fully implemented; a total of 2284 minor problems had been recorded, with over 95% of issues revealed in due time; total SMED time decreased for 7.6%; 19 problem solving sessions were initiated with 58% of solving effectiveness, and the remaining converted to on-going projects. In maintenance 5S improved from 29.9 to 60.3; overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) indicator increased from 87.9% to 92.3%; mean time between failure (MTBF) increased for 16.4%. Conclusion: As a result of all activities, 20 in-house trainings and 2 ‘kaizen’ events including motivational training have been initiated with 54 documents being revised and improved in order to contribute to more efficient processes.