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Krzysztof Sas-Nowosielski and Aleksandra Budzisz

Abstract

Introduction. The aim of the study was twofold. The first aim was to specify attitudes toward using performance-enhancing drugs (doping) among athletes practising different sports disciplines. The second aim was to present the Polish version and validation of the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS).

Material and methods. A total of 340 athletes (173 males and 167 females) took part in the study. They represented 13 sport disciplines. The study was conducted in Central Sports Centres in Poland. Athletes’ attitudes were assessed using the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS).

Results. The study revealed that athletes generally were not tolerant in relation to illegal performance-enhancing substances in sport. However, men were more permissive toward illegal performance enhancement than women. The other important factor, apart from gender, was the amount of contact between competitors. The lowest values were found for sports where athletes competed parallel to each other, medium values were recorded for sports where athletes were in close contact, and the highest values were found in the group of athletes having no contact with the competitors. Our analyses also confirmed that the 11-item version of PEAS has the best fit indices and therefore is most recommended for use among Polish athletes.

Conclusions. The Polish version of PEAS is recommended in its 11-item version, and its reliability was confirmed. According to the findings of the study, Polish athletes rather do not approve of doping behaviours. Men were more likely to use illegal substances than women. The most positive attitude towards doping was found for sport disciplines where there is no contact with the competitor.

Open access

Nicolae-Adrian Jurjiu and Corina Pantea

Abstract

The aim of this paper was to study a number of 34 athletes practicing different kinds of sports activities, in order to determine whether they have developed a certain spine deficiency and if there is any association between the type of sports they practice and the postural changes they develop.

Methods: In this study we have enrolled 12 members of the men’s volleyball team of the “West University of Timisoara”, 9 members of the men’s football team ASU Politehnica Timișoara, and 13 members of the men’s basketball team BC SCM Timișoara. Postural analysis was carried out with the Zebris CMS-10 from the mechatronics department of the Politehinca University Timisoara, a device that determines the spatial coordinates of the spinous processes. From the obtained data we have established the angle of the spinal deviation both sagittal and frontal, in a similar manner as with the Cobb method.

Results: We have observed a reduction in the spinal curvature in volleyball players; 8 out of 12 had values under the normal range that can in time lead to a rigid spine. 7 players from the basketball team presented values out of the normal range for kyphosis and 8 of them for lordosis, while all except two of the team players present with a front plane deviation of the spine. From the evaluation of the football players from ASU Politehnica Timișoara we cannot generalize a deviation in the sagittal plane, but all of them present deviations in the frontal plane.

Conclusion: Professional athletes can also present postural changes determined by the positions they most frequently adopt depending on the type of sports they practice.

Open access

Paulo Martins, António Rosado, Vítor Ferreira and Rui Biscaia

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between motivation, engagement and personal and social responsibility among athletes. Based on the literature, a survey was conducted including measures of motivation, considering task orientation and ego orientation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and amotivation. We also measured the components of engagement (dedication, confidence, vigor and enthusiasm) and the components of personal and social responsibility. A total of 517 athletes from different types of sports participated in the study. The results gathered through a structural equation model revealed that task orientation had the strongest relationship with personal responsibility and social responsibility, followed by engagement. Self-determination levels were not associated with personal and social responsibility. These results suggest that monitoring of task orientation and engagement levels should be performed by coaches as a strategy to develop personal and social responsibility among their athletes. Moreover, findings from this study provide scholars with a tool to aid them in managing athletes’ levels of personal and social responsibility.

Open access

Marin Chirazi and Irina Șubredu

Abstract

Starting from the theoretical assumptions regarding the fact that the sustained physical effort had repercussions on the mental dimensions and starting from the findings that I came across in practice regarding the fact that the mental state of the athletes varied in time during an endurance test, the aim of the present research was to investigate the effect of stress caused by sustained physical effort specific to endurance tests on the psychological dimensions – in the case of former athletes. The attaining of the set goal was observed through a small scale experimental study case (two subjects of different age). They were involved in an endeavour for establishing a record for sailing the Danube in recreational kayaks provided with space for luggage; random accommodation. During that expedition, a series of mental characteristics of the participants were measured: emotional stability, anxiety level and degree of optimism. The research pointed out the different adaptive capacity of each individual, regardless of age, experience and personality.

Open access

Barbara Frączek and Maria Gacek

Abstract

The research was stimulated by the lack of data on the nutritional value of several dishes preferred by athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional value of selected designed dishes, grilled chicken salad and spaghetti with tomatoes and parmesan.

The examined material was analysed for contents of protein, fat, fibre, and dry matter according to respective standards. Energetic value was calculated using Atwater factors.

The energy value of spaghetti with tomatoes and parmesan cheese amounted to 81.1 kcal/100 g and was statistically significantly higher (P<0.001) than that of the grilled chicken salad (67.0 kcal/100 g of product), which was associated with a significantly higher content of total carbohydrates (15.54 vs. 2.77 g/100 g), and significantly lower contents of protein (3.83 vs. 7.25 g/100 g) and fat (1.33 vs. 4.04 g/100g). The content of dietary fibre in examined dishes was similar, and amounted to 2.32 g/100 g and 2.33 g/100 g in the spaghetti and salad, respectively (P<0.001). The ratio of saturated to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated acids per 100 g of the chicken salad and spaghetti with tomatoes and parmesan cheese was 0.68:2.98:0.38 g and 0.54:0.61:0.18 g, respectively.

High contents of protein in grilled chicken salad and digestible carbohydrates in spaghetti with tomatoes and parmesan, as well as favourable fatty acid profile substantiates their use as part of the balanced diet for sportspersons.

Open access

Donata Woitas-Ślubowska

Influence of Patricipation in Leisure Time Physical Activity on Tobacco and Alcohol Consumption among Former Athletes and Non Athletes

The purpose of the study was to recognise relationships between participation in leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and smoking and alcohol consumption among former athletes (FA) and individuals with no sports experience (NA). In Spring-Summer periods in the years 1997-2002 within the purposively sampled groups of FA (n=312) and people NA (n=417) - an anonymous survey was conducted concerning their socioeconomic status, participation in LTPA, smoking and alcohol consumption. The age of examined FA and NA ranged from 18 to 51 years. Respondents' participation in LTPA was measured as follows: frequency, time and forms of LTPA. For evaluation of respondents' smoking status in the last six months the following categories were used: I do not smoke, I smoked occasionally, I smoked 1 to 10 cigarettes/day, and I smoked more than 10 cigarettes/day. Variables describing alcohol consumption involve frequency of drinking alcohol beverages and type of consumed alcohol beverages. It has shown that among male FA was a significantly lower rate of non-smokers, as compared to male NA. No correlation was found between LTPA and smoking and alcohol consumption among women FA and NA. Negative correlation between participation in LTPA and smoking and alcohol consumption was found in both male groups. The results obtained allow us to draw a conclusion that promoting participation in competitive sports or LTPA is a valuable means to complement intervention programmes focused on the reduction and elimination of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption addressed to men.

Open access

Reylin Maciejewski and Hercules Callanta

Summary

Study aim: The aim of this study was twofold: first, to compare the incidence of injuries between male and female athletes in the junior and youth divisions during competition, as well as to identify body parts commonly injured and the types of injury frequently incurred; second, to assess overall incidence of injuries in relation to the frequency and duration of training as well as supplemental training.

Material and methods: Subjects were Filipino judokas (n = 192) competing in 4 major divisions at a national competition in Manila in 2009. Injury rates are expressed per 1,000 athlete-exposures, and the confidence intervals around the rates were computed.

Results: There was no difference in injury rate between boys (84.03/1,000 athlete-exposures (A-E), 95% CI: 47.20–120.86) and girls (37.04/1,000 A-E, 95% CI: –14.29–88.37). Although the boys were at a higher risk than the girls, the difference was not significant (OR = 3.13, 95% CI: 0.62–15.76). The junior women were at a higher risk than the girls (OR = 6.30, 95% CI: 1.26–31.66). Neither training frequencies of ≤2, 3, and ≥4 sessions per week nor training durations of ≤2 and >2 hours were significant predictors of injury. Supplemental training was not found to be related to the occurrence of injuries.

Conclusion: Judo is a relatively safe physical activity for young adults and children. Training variables, such as frequency and duration, and supplemental training do not influence the occurence of injury.

Open access

Andrzej Petrykowski and Grażyna Lutosławska

The Relationship Between 500 M and 2000 M Simulated Rowing Times for Schoolboy Rowers Over a Training Period of Three Years

Purpose. Available data finds that for schoolboy rowers the 2000 m on-water or laboratory rowing distance causes fatigue and depresses their ability to train during the following days. Thus, looking for a less demanding test we evaluated the relationships between 500 m and 2000 m laboratory performance in schoolboy rowers. Basic procedures. A total of 10 boys participated in the study. All of the subjects simulated rowing "all-out" in either the 500 m or 2000 m rowing distance using a Concept II ergometer (Morsville, VT, USA). The tests were performed in November (transition phase), in January (general preparation phase), in March (specific preparation phase) and in June (competitive phase) throughout three successive years of training. Main findings. The mean power output during the 2000 m row gradually increased in the second year of training vs. the first one, and in the third year of training vs. the second one (p < 0.001). The times markedly improved in each year of training (p < 0.001). The mean power output and the time of the 500 m distance improved significantly in each year of training. In each training phase during the three years of training there were significant correlations between the rowing times in the 500 m and 2000 m distances. The coefficients of determination (r 2 x 100) in the first year varied from 66.9 to 85.6%, in the second year - from 62.0% to 92.3%, and in the third year - from 76.4 to 89.5%. Conclusions. The relationship between the times measured in the of the 500 m and that of 2000 m one is affected by both the annual training phase and training experience. Thus, the 500 m laboratory rowing test may be useful in assessing the ability of schoolboy rowers to perform a competitive distance, but the results require careful interpretation.

Open access

Danica Michalickova, Jelena Kotur-Stevuljevic, Milica Miljkovic, Nenad Dikic, Marija Kostic-Vucicevic, Marija Andjelkovic, Vladimir Koricanac and Brizita Djordjevic

Abstract

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted, in order to evaluate if Lactobacillus helveticus Lafti® L10 (Lallemand Health Solutions, Montreal, Canada) supplementation during three months could influence oxidative markers in the population of elite athletes: triathletes, cyclists and endurance athletes. Twenty-two elite athletes were randomized to either placebo (n = 12) or probiotic (n = 10) groups. The probiotic group received 2x1010 colony forming units of Lafti® L10. Before and after the supplementation serum samples were collected. Markers of oxidative stress and anti-oxidative defense: superoxide dismutase (SOD), paraoxonase (PON), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant status, total oxidant status, pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance, oxidative stress index, bilirubin, uric acid and albumin were determined in serum. Parameters of lipid status, as well as susceptibility to copper-induced oxidation of LDL particles in vitro were also determined. There was a significant interaction effect for MDA (p = 0.039), with a decrease in MDA in the probiotic group only (p = 0.049). There was a significant interaction effect for AOPP (p = 0.037), with a significant decrease in the probiotic group (p = 0.045). Interaction effect for SOD was approaching to formal significance (p = 0.108) and the post-hoc test showed a significant decrease in the probiotic group (p = 0.041) only. A significant correlation between AOPP and SOD (p = 0.012, r = -0.40) was found in the probiotic group at the end of the study. PON1 activity was decreased in both the probiotic (p = 0.032) and placebo group (p = 0.035). No significant changes in the remainder of the evaluated parameters were noted. In conclusion, probiotic strain Lafti® L10 exerts certain antioxidant potential, but further research is needed.

Open access

Raouf Hammami, David G Behm, Mokhtar Chtara, Aymen Ben Othman and Anis Chaouachi

Abstract

When prescribing balance exercises to athletes in different sports, it may be important to recognize performance variations. Indeed, how athletes from different sports perform on balance tests is not well understood. The goal of the present study was to compare static balance and the role of vision among elite sprinters, jumpers and rugby players. The modified clinical test of sensory interaction on balance (mCTSIB) was used to assess the velocity of the center-of-pressure (CoP) on a force platform during a 30 s bipedal quiet standing posture in 4 conditions: firm surface with opened and closed eyes, foam surface with opened and closed eyes. Three-factor ANOVA indicated a significant main effect for groups (F=21.69, df=2, p<0.001, η2 = 0.34). Significant main effect of vision (F=43.20, df=1, p<0.001, η2 = 0.34) and surface (F=193.41, df=1, p<0.001, η2 = 0.70) as well as an interaction between vision (eyes open, eyes closed) and surface (firm and foam) (F=21.79, df=1, p=0.001) were reported in all groups. The subsequent Bonferroni-Dunn post hoc test indicated that rugby players displayed better static balance than sprinters and jumpers (p=0.001). The comparison of sprinters and jumpers did not reveal significant differences (p>0.05). The nature of the sport practiced and the absence of visual control are linked to modify static balance in elite athletes. Coaches and strength and conditioning professionals are recommended to use a variety of exercises to improve balance, including both exercises with opened and closed eyes on progressively challenging surfaces in order to make decisions about tasks and sensory availability during assessment and training.