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Open access

Urszula Kossowska-Cezak

Abstract

This paper aims at presenting changes in everyday air temperature values, triggered by the contemporary warming process. The analysis has been based on the mean, maximum, and minimum daily temperature values measured in Warsaw between 1951 – 2003. The mean daily temperature in that period was between −24.6 and 28.4°C, absolute minimum temperature was −30.7°C, absolute maximum temperature amounted to 36.4°C.

Calculations indicate that the number of days with mean temperature ≤ −5.0°C (minimum < 0.0°C, maximum < 0.0°C) in the last several years decreased. This trend slowed down at the beginning of 21st century, nevertheless, the number of days with mean daily temperature > 20.0°C and maximum temperature > 25.0°C was growing, particularly in the 1990’s and even more so in early 2000’s. Also since 1990’s, there has been increasingly more nights with minimum temperature > 15.0°C, which has been particularly apparent in 2001. Contemporary warming is then marked with an increasing frequency of the hottest days and decreasing frequency of the coldest days. These changes were asymmetrical beyond 1950’s, yet, in late 1990’s they coincided.

Open access

Marek Półrolniczak

Sensible temperature at the Łeba Sandbar (Słowiński National Park) on selected days of the 2010 summer season

The analysis was performed on the basis of weather measurements conducted in the Słowiński National Park at the Łeba Sandbar in the period from 8th July to 6th August 2010. Two biometeorological indices were calculated: the effective temperature (ET) and the radiative-effective temperature (RET). The daily course of RET was used to select the typical days, which were then subjected to a detailed analysis. This consisted in assessing the influence of individual meteorological elements and the synoptic situation on the development of the values of the RET and ET indices. A considerable diversity of sensible conditions was determined, as well as the considerable variability thereof during the day, in particular during the movement of atmospheric fronts. The sensible conditions were also influenced by factors connected with local circulation and the presence of the sea. Finally, a considerable decrease in the values of RET and ET was observed during changes in wind direction, namely when the wind was blowing from the northern sector.

Open access

Tomasz Jakubowski and Piotr Sołowiej

Abstract

A condition of obtaining compost with proper sanitary parameters is achieving the organic recycling process temperature which exceeds 7°C. The objective of the paper was to determine the temperature course in the compost tank for organic recycling of dead poultry in relation to the applied structure forming material. Wheat, oat, barley, rapeseed and corn straw were used as a structure-forming material. A measuring system was equipped with a probe with a temperature sensor with precision of ±0.15°C, transducer and data recorder. Results were prepared with the use of the analysis of variance at the level of significance of α=0.05. Statistically significant differences of the temperature value in the thermophille phase of the composting process between combinations of the experiment were indicated. In all investigated combinations of the experiment, achievement (or exceeding) the temperature value of 70°C of the compost mass was reported.

Open access

Weronika Masłowska and Daniel Liberacki

Abstract

This paper presents the influence of meteorological conditions prevailing in the western part of Poland on the yield of selected blueberry varieties. The research was conducted on a small plantation located in the Przyczyna Górna village, in the Wschowa district of the Lubuskie province. There are five varieties of blueberry: Patriot, Duke, Chandler, Elliott and Bleuecrop. The studied years 2014, 2015, 2016, as the first fruiting years, were presented in relation to the multi-year 2006-2016. The 2014 was the warmest year during this period with an average air temperature of 10.3 °C, whilst the lowest temperature was 7.6 °C recorded in 2010. The highest precipitation was in 2016, with the precipitation level of 760 mm. However, the year with the lowest precipitation of 418 mm turned out to be 2011. The goal of the study in 2014-2016 was to evaluate the respective yields of five varieties of blueberry on a small plantation, taking into account various meteorological conditions.

Open access

András Baranyai

Abstract

In classical statistical mechanics the trajectory in phase space represents the propagation of a classical Hamiltonian system. While trajectories play a key role in chaotic system theory, exploitation of a single trajectory has yet to be considered. This work shows that for ergodic dynamical systems the dynamical temperature can be derived using phase space trajectories.

Open access

Chun-ling Liu, Chun-wei Wang, Ying Liu, Ping Zhou, Xiao-juan Li, Hui-yuan Si and Hongwei Zhang

Abstract

A twenty-eight-year-old male patient with five-day’s fever (the highest body tempreture reached 39.4°C) and 10-hour’s rash (first on face) presented to the department of emergency for “drug rash”, at that time his temperature was 38.6°C. Two hours later, his temperature fell to normal. Then this patient’s entire body rash increased significantly and lasted for 13 hours. Serum measles antibody IgM(+) confirmed the measles diagnosis. He had received measles vaccine as a baby. Clinicians should be aware of this atypical clinical manifestation of adult measles. If this kind of patients were misdiagnosed as drug rash and given corticosteroid, measles disease may be aggravated. Specific serum measles antibody testing may be the only reliable method for differential diagnosis, but the earliest time point for examining the antibodies of measles still needs precise research.

Open access

Rafał Wyczółkowski and Dorota Musiał

Thermovision determination of the furnace chamber environment temperature using the technical blackbody model

The article describes the methodology for the determination of ambient temperature for thermovision measurements. The adopted methodology consists in the use of the technical blackbody model. Determining the value of the ambient temperature parameter makes it possible to enhance the accuracy of temperature measurement of objects exposed to strong irradiation using a thermovision camera.

Open access

Bohdan Mucha and Jolanta Wawer

Abstract

This paper outlines the results of a study of Lviv’s specific thermal characteristics. The study relied on a series of measurements taken over a 15-month period (from February 2007, through April 2008) at 6 automatic meteorological stations, representing a variety of physiogeographic conditions and land use. The study reveals substantial variations of temperature levels (annual [1-3°C], seasonal [2-4°C], and daily [2-12°C] averages), indicating the presence of an urban heat island. The result of the study is a map of the distribution of average annual air temperatures on the territory of Lviv.

Open access

Emil Škultéty, Elena Pivarčiová and Ladislav Karrach

Abstract

One of the most frequently measured quantity is temperature, which is also one of the most important physical quantities. Temperature has influence on the almost all states and processes in the nature as well as in technique. A wide range of temperature sensors is currently available on the market. They use different measurement principles and exist in many designs. According to the location of the sensing element in the measured environment, they are divided into two main groups: contact and non-contact. Further, we can divide the temperature sensors according to the physical principle on which they work. The article deals with the analysis and comparison of selected Arduino-compatible contact temperature sensors. The temperature measurement of machine functional nodes and its diagnostics are part of maintenance and engineering diagnostics. At present, NC and CNC machine diagnostics are an important trend in machine condition monitoring and machine status prediction to maintain production quality. Machine status monitoring allows reducing of machine service costs as well as maintaining the high production quality.

Open access

Waldemar Żukowski, Agnieszka Bogdanowicz and Marlena Lembicz

Seed germination in sedges: a short review

Five patterns of seed germination in the sedges of the genus Carex are presented, based on the literature data and the results of the authors' own research. They include the pattern of C. acutiformis, C. arenaria, C. remota, C. flava and C. communis. These patterns were constructed on the basis of seed specific requirements for development, such as stratification, temperature, dormancy and time of germination. Majority of sedges follow the pattern of C. acutiformis or C. remota. In both cases, stratification and either high or low temperature are essential for seed germination. Seeds that start to germinate early (C. remota pattern) are characterized by the absence of the distinct peaks of germination, as opposed to the C. acutiformis pattern with the germination peak in March. Our long-term investigations, conducted on the group of individuals in controlled conditions, revealed significant differences in seed size and the ability of seeds to germinate depending on the age of mother plants. We postulate that mother plant age is a new factor that should be considered in the construction of seed germination patterns.