The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of alcohol consumption among adolescents in Serbia and its association with sociodemographic characteristics. This paper is based on data from a national health survey of the population of Serbia in 2013 (no data for Kosovo and Metohija), conducted by the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Serbia. For the purposes of this study, data on households and individuals over 15 years of age were used; thus, the final sample for analysis included 858 patients (aged 15 to 19 years). Researchers used demographic characteristics (age, gender, type of home, region) and socio-economic characteristics (income per household member, the index of well-being, self-assessment of health, cigarette smoking, tendency towards psychological and physical violence) as the independent variables. A χ2 test was applied to test the differences in the frequencies of categorical variables. The correlations between alcohol consumption, as the dependent variable, and the independent variables (mentioned above) were tested by logistic regression. All results less than or equal to 5% probability (p ≤ 0.05) were considered statistically significant. The prevalence of alcohol consumption among adolescents in Serbia is 51.6%. Alcohol consumption is significantly associated with sex, type of home and the index of well-being (p < 0.05). The prevalence of alcohol consumption is higher in males (57.1%), in adolescents who come from urban areas (59.3%) and in adolescents who, according to the index of well-being, belong to the wealthiest financial category (23.9%).
Tamara Lukić, Ivana Penjišević, Bojan Đerčan, Branislav Đurđev, Milka Bubalo Živković and Tanja Armenski
Thanks to the field observations conducted on the territory of central Serbia, it was noticed that people in rural environment, beside the optional conversations about weather conditions, most often talk about the politics. The aim of this work was to find out how many people who live in the countryside have the contact with the politics. Hypothesis were made within the communication with several examinees, but they were verified by the poll in which more than 100 persons took part. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, using T-test, one-factor analysis of ANOVA variance, and also they were checked by Post-hoc Tukey test. The work task was to find out if gender, age, as well as, professional and regional differences exist in relation to the countryside inhabitants considerations about certain political issues they have been talking about. The importance of this work is to discover whether the distance from urban environments and, life in nature can make a man less interested in and indifferent to the politics.
Eva N. Kabaš, Antun A. Alegro, Nevena V. Kuzmanović, Ksenija M. Jakovljević, Snežana S. Vukojičić and Dmitar V. Lakušić
Phytosociological characteristics of grassland communities above serpentines (order Halacsyetalia sendtneri H. Ritter-Studnčka 1970) in Serbia, are analyzed according to Braun-Blanquet methodology. In order to detect the basic floristic differentiation of analyzed communities ordinary correspondence analysiswas applied. Cluster analysiswas also performed to see the structure and separation of the communities based on the floristic composition. In order to determine diagnostic species, fidelity indices with presence/ absence data and the size of all groups standardized to equal size were calculated. The new association Stipetum novakii is described in open rocky serpentine grasslands in Brdjani Gorge.
Serbia introduced inflation targeting regime in August 2006. After nine years of its application, conclusions may be drawn on the (un)successfulness of the regime. Inflation targets have not been achieved during seven of nine observed years. Key difficulties in the application of the regime refer to insufficient efficiency of monetary policy instruments, insufficient confidence in the domestic currency (widely spread informal euroisation), and indexing of prices according to the exchange rate.
The paper consists of four sections. The first section analyses theoretical assumptions of the inflation targeting regime. The second part describes the characteristics of the regime in Serbia. The third section analyses results, while the fourth section analyses the reasons for insufficient efficiency of the regime and gives actual suggestions for improving the existing regime.
Tamara Ilić, Zsolt Becskei, Aleksandar Tasić, Predrag Stepanović, Katarina Radisavljević, Boban Đurić and Sanda Dimitrijević
Introduction: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of respiratory capillariosis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in some regions of Serbia.
Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 102 foxes in six epizootiological regions of Serbia, during the hunting season between 2008 and 2012.
Results: The presence of respiratory capillariosis in all tested epizootiological regions was confirmed. The E. aerophilus nematode was detected with overall prevalence of 49.02%. The diagnosis of E. aerophilus infection was confirmed by the determination of morphological characteristics of adult parasites found at necropsy and the trichurid egg types collected from the bronchial lavage and the content of the intestine.
Conclusion: The presented results contribute to better understanding of the epidemiology of this nematodosis in Serbia. However, the high prevalence of capillaries in tested foxes, demonstrated in all explored areas, might suggest that foxes from other regions in Serbia may also be infected. The fact that domestic carnivores and humans can also be infected enhances the importance of the overall epidemiological status. To establish the relevant prevalence of respiratory capillariosis, further investigations and continous monitoring of parasitic fauna of carnivores are needed in the whole country.
Zoran Ristić, Slobodan Puzović, Igor Ponjiger, Miroslav Urošević, Milutin Kovačević, Milosava Matejević and Vladimir Marković
Decrease of grey partridge population is a global process that has been catastrophic in recent decades. In England, the number of this species declined by 80% in the period from the beginning of the fifties to the mid-eighties of the last century (Potts, 1986). In the Czech Republic from 1965 to the end of the eighties by as much as 95% (Štasny et al. 1997), and the situation is similar in Poland (Panek, 2005). The status of grey partridge in Serbia follows the same pattern as mentioned, with drastic decline (Ristić and Puzović, 2015). The reasons for such trend are numerous, directly conditioned and are often difficult to eliminate. It has been found that culling has no significant effect on the population (Ristić, 1992), but changes in its habitat in order to increase the yield of agricultural crops and chemical protection have very negative effect on partridge number. In order to study each type of game, it is necessary to know the basic elements of the population: density, growth, birth rate, mortality, migration movements and gender and age structure. Migration has no effect on changes in the partridge populations. Period of assessment 2010-2013: Serbia: 20,000-28,000 breeding pairs (bp), Vojvodina: 900-1,000 bp. Long-term population trend 1980-2003: MD (mean decrease in number), short-term population trend 2000-2013: MD (mean decrease in number). The number generally decreases, especially in Vojvodina, where it is endangered by intensive agriculture and the application of harmful biocides. It is necessary to improve the monitoring and develop the national action plan.
Vukan M. Lavadinović, Zoran Popović, Dejan Beuković, Milorad Danilović and Milutin Đorđević
Covering almost the entire territory of Serbia, hunting grounds occupy a unique role not only in the country’s hunting practices but also in game management and wildlife conservation. Therefore, it is useful to be acquainted with their characteristics in order to manage game in a sustainable manner. Nevertheless, there has not been a proper study on the condition of hunting grounds in Serbia since the country’s transition process, which reshaped the hunting sector as a whole. The purpose of this research is to identify and analyze the features of hunting grounds in Serbia in order to establish a base for future scientific research and appropriate decision making. The research results were obtained on the basis of the data on 272 hunting grounds in Serbia, collated during the hunting year of 2012/2013 and compared with the last comprehensive hunting analysis at the national level in 2001. The analysis suggests that the regal hunting system is still predominant in Serbia. The quality of hunting grounds has been enhanced to a certain extent, although there are yet some challenges which pose a threat to sustainable management such as the oversized hunting areas, lack of employees and poor financial condition.
Bluetongue, a vector-born disease caused by the Bluetongue virus (BTV) and transmitted by Culicoides biting midges, is considered to be one of the most important diseases of domestic ruminants. The first outbreak of bluetongue in Serbia was reported in 2001, when BTV serotype 9 was identified in sampled materials. In 2014, outbreak of BTV-4 in Serbia caused considerable economic losses affecting sheep, cattle and goats. During this outbreak, BTV-4 was recorded in 644 outbreaks within 49 municipalities, part of 17 administrative regions. From the total number of sheep kept in areas affected by bluetongue (n=1 748 110), 2 083 cases (0.2%) were proven to be BTV-4 infected. Total of 206 infected cattle and 24 infected goats were reported during this investigation period, which represents 0.06% and 0.03% of the total number of cattle and goats kept in affected areas, respectively. The highest incidence of infected sheep, cattle and goats was recorded on the territory covered by veterinary institute of Nis. Recorded lethality in cattle, sheep and goats was 18.45% (n=38), 48.10% (n=1002) and 54.17% (n=13), respectively. The peak of the outbreak was in September and October when 94.43% of the confirmed positive cases, regardless of the species, was recorded. Monitoring of bluetongue disease in Serbia relies on active surveillance programmes aimed at: (i) identification and tracing of susceptible and potentially infected animals and (ii) detection, distribution and prevalence of insect vectors. Vaccination of sheep is planned to be implemented as a control measure against bluetongue in Serbia.
In Serbia, the first isolates of C. difficile were isolated in the Public Health Institute (PHI), Center for Microbiology in Niš, at the end of 2005.
The National Reference Laboratory for Anaerobic Infections (NRLA) in PHI Niš confirmed the toxigenic strains that caused the first three registered hospital epidemics in Serbia, in 2006 at the Clinic of Neurology, Clinical Center Niš, in 2007 at the Clinical Center of Vojvodina in Novi Sad, and in 2009 in the General Hospital in Požarevac.
In 2014, C. difficile species were isolated for the first time from 175 environment samples in the research studies which were conducted in NRLA of PHI Niš. In the samples of soil taken from the ground within the Clinical Center Niš, those taken from the parks at the territory of the Municipality of Niš, samples of mud and sand around the illegal sewage systems at the territory of the Municipality of Niška Banja, a small number of bacteria C. difficile producing the toxins (A+B+) as well as non-toxigenic isolates (A−B−) were found.
Results of the first epidemiological investigations of cases of diarrhea associated with prior antibiotic treatment applied in hospitalized patients in a number of health centers in our country, microbiological investigations done in the Public Health Institute, valuable discussions at professional and scientific meetings influenced the general attitude that isolation and identification of C. difficile and/or detection of toxin produced by this bacteria should be part of the routine work in the Serbian microbiological laboratories.
Anđelija Ivkov-Džigurski, Vedrana Babić, Aleksandra Dragin, Kristina Košić and Ivana Blešić
This article offers an ethnographic exploration of the Vlachs in the Branicevo region of Serbia. The Vlachs rarely exist anywhere as a distinct ethnic group due to their permanent assimilation with other ethnic groups. The thing that has always been linked to the folklore of the Vlachs and still attracts a large number of people to come and visit some remote parts of Eastern Serbia is definitely a certain mystery which represents the essential part of the culture of this nation. Instances of Vlach magic can be seen in the Timok area, all over Eastern Serbia and across its borders. Vlach magic is a miracle or is miraculous, when looking at how long it has been present, its unique rituals, beliefs, shamans and spells.
Vlach culture intertwined with pagan customs and interesting rituals, makes the municipalities in Eastern Serbia mysterious places in modern 21st century Europe, because the Vlachs are a mostly closed (endogamous) population which do not blend with people of other nationalities.