The article presents an analysis and a critical assessment of rural areas in Poland in the years 1999-2011 from a demographic perspective. The analysis is based on indicators characterising population density, population structure by gender and age, migrations of population, and vital statistics. In order to classify and compare rural areas, the k-means method is employed. The sample of rural areas used in the study contains all 2,173 rural and urban-rural gminas (excluding urban parts) in Poland.
Pilot study of the composition of wastes was carried out in 15 rural family households engaged in agricultural activity. In the study group the average resident of rural areas generates about 166 kg of municipal wastes annually. The conducted studies showed that the composition of municipal wastes coming from rural households changes seasonally. During the periods of summer and autumn, the quantity of bio-wastes increased distinctly. The average mass of wastes transferred to the companies engaged in the collection of wastes in the analyzed rural households is almost 50 kg · M–1. year–1. The studies showed that over 80% of organic wastes (kitchen and garden) is utilized in the place where they are generated. In the studies, organic wastes were collected selectively (in separate bags), which undoubtedly had infiuence on their humidity (70–90%). Laboratory analysis of these wastes showed that the ratio C:N in it was from 7 to 19, whereas pH lay within the limits from 5.8 to 6.9 indicating its very good properties for the composting process. Therefore composting of organic waste from rural household should be recommended as the best way for its disposal and the weight reduction of biodegradable waste going to landfills. Comparison of the analyzed variants showed that some waste other than kitchen and garden does not leave the holding (it is re-used or burned in home hearths).
Francisco Navarro, Marilena Labianca, Eugenio Cejudo, Stefano de Rubertis, Angelo Salento, Juan Carlos Maroto and Angelo Belliggiano
In the Leader approach, innovation plays a key role in European territories, especially in marginal and peripheral ones, being essentially assumed, from a programmatic point of view, as social innovation. This paper aims to understand the interpretation and the declination of innovation in the practice of Leader initiative at local scale and analyze contextual factors related to its implementation in two southern provinces of Spain and Italy (Granada and Lecce). The study aims to analyze the projects reported as innovative by the leaders of the Local Action Groups, starting from the literature and using a key Community document entitled “Extended report on preserving the innovative character of LEADER”. Lastly, the study reveals common significant problems linked to local awareness of the role of social innovation, as well as the absence or limitations of key institutions.
One Rural, two Visions — Environmental Issues and Images on Rural Areas in Portugal
In recent years rural areas, specially the most peripheral and remote ones, have become increasingly perceived and identified as spaces of outstanding environmental quality. This relatively new function of the rural, while widely recognized both socially and institutionally, is to some extent strange to local residents to whom the natural resources and the environmental aspects are mainly perceived from an utilitarian perspective. The exteriority of the measures and policies to preserve rural environment tends to place remote rural areas in a new subaltern position. Correspondingly, the social and institutional construction of rural areas as environmental reserves tends to create a new rural-urban dichotomy which may have important repercussions in terms of the future directions of rural development processes. We aim to discuss the abovementioned aspects, based on empirical evidence from two Portuguese rural areas. We conclude that there are two different visions about the rural — the rural to visit and the rural to live - conveyed respectively by the urban residents and the State and by the local inhabitants.
Jana Ďurkovičová, Jarmila Lazíková, Ivan Takáč and L'ubica Rumanovská
Criminality is not a problem in the urban areas only; it has become one of the main problems in the rural areas as well. The countryside is not considered as a crime free area anymore. The rural criminality research helps to fnd and adopt the right preventive measures. Cooperation of all the sectors, state, businessmen, self-government and non-governmental organisations is important. In order to look for some suitable preventive measures, it is necessary to fnd the causes of the rural criminality. There are many criminality factors. However, we can expect that in dependence on the character and activities of a region, these causes will be specifc for each rural area. The aim of this paper is frstly to notice that the rural criminality is a blind place in the research activities in Slovakia and secondly to try to identify some factors which are impulses to commit crimes in the rural areas.
The aim of this paper is to characterize the daily activity pattern of the common hamster at two sites with different levels of human impact on environment. Locality no 1, Zesławice, is located within the administrative borders of Krakow agglomeration and is intensively penetrated by people. The farmers spend long periods of time in the fields and do much work manually. Locality no 2, Szczotkowice, is located between the villages of Szczotkowice and Pierocice, in the Działoszyce municipality. Extensive agriculture is carried out in this locality. The farmers use agricultural machines, but for most of the daytime, they are not present in the fields even during the busy harvest season. The daily activity of animals was studied using the method of food tables. The results indicate that hamsters from areas with high level of human pressures started their daily activity two hours later than those from rural areas. They exhibited higher synchronization and more uniform daily activity patterns than was recorded at the typically agricultural site. The morning and evening activity peak was significantly more distinct for urban hamsters than for rural hamsters.
The characteristic of the concept “rural areas” is widely different, varying from country to country. Similarly, Uzbek rural areas quite differ from Slovak ones. However, in both countries there is not applied a concrete national typology for the classification of rural areas. Therefore, the main aim of the paper is to identify the differences between the rural areas in Uzbekistan and Slovakia and to classify them using the rural - urban typology based on OECD methodology. In the selected countries the rural areas are mainly identified by the number of population living in the rural local units. According to the results of the classification by using the OECD methodology, in Uzbekistan the significantly rural areas prevail whereas in Slovakia, the intermediate ones dominate. However, there is not a big difference in the share of rural population between predominantly rural areas and intermediate ones in the Slovak Republic. In contrast to Slovakia, the number of rural residents in the intermediate rural areas in Uzbekistan is about three times lower than rural population in predominantly rural areas. There is not a predominantly urban area according to this methodology in Uzbekistan, however in Slovakia, Bratislava is the only region considered as predominantly urban area where only 2.2% of rural population from the total population reside.
This article refers to the analysis and the evaluation of permanent migration as observed in rural areas of Poland, especially in peri-urban areas of the Polish cities between the years 1995 and 2011. The article covered all 2,173 rural and rural-urban (excluding urban parts) gminas in the country. In the article there were shown what are the migration volumes and dynamics in rural areas and what is the situation of large cities’ peri-urban areas in terms of permanent migration.
Subject and purpose of work: The purpose of this article is to show the results of the analysis of the involvement of micro-, small and medium-sized agribusiness enterprises operating in rural areas with reference to the issues of social responsibility in protection of natural environment. Materials and methods: Research on entrepreneurs’ views on CSR activities was conducted at the turn of 2016 and 2017 and included 212 micro (0-9 persons), small (10-49 employees) and medium (50-249 employees) agribusiness enterprises conducting business activity in the rural areas of the Wielkopolska province. Results: The conducted research has confirmed the common view that micro enterprises show little interest in implementing basic standards of social responsibility in the “environment” area. The situation is slightly better for small and medium enterprises. Conclusions: Pro-environmental activities, especially in the agribusiness sector, should be promoted, highlighting the range of benefits that can be achieved through these activities, such as improving relationships with the local community, increasing employees’ motivation, and increasing customers’ loyalty.
After the collapse of the single-party state, a new economic and social structure was born in Hungary. The main purpose of my study is to present the changes that occurred within the employment in rural areas. I shall analyse the changes in employment rates, and also the change in the distribution of employment amongst various sectors of the national economy. In order to understand the labour-market related problems of the extended rural areas, I shall focus mostly on changes that occurred within the sector of agriculture. After the regime change in Hungary, making a living in rural areas was greatly upset by the vast amount of free labour emerging due to the disintegration of the large-scale state system of agriculture. Since agriculture could be the only certain market for employing the high number of unskilled workforce that is typical at rural areas, I shall explore the changes occurred within the agrarian sector and in its employment in the past two decades, and also current plans and initiatives that are proposed to improve employment in the sector of agriculture.