A. Ribas, W. Saijuntha, T. Agatsuma, C. Thongjun, K. Lamsan and S. Poonlaphdecha
Only a few surveys have ever been carried out of the helminths of the commensal rodents found in the traditional wet markets that play such an important part of daily life in South-east Asia. The potential of rodents as reservoirs of zoonoses including helminths is of great interest since in these markets humans and rodents come into closer contact than in other environments and food may be indirectly contaminated via rodent faeces. Helminths in a total of 98 rats belonging to two species (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus exulans) were surveyed in eight traditional wet markets in Udon Thani, Thailand. Thirteen species of helminths were recovered, seven of which are potentially zoo-notic, with an overall prevalence of 89.8 %. Our results show that rodents in wet markets could pose a threat to human health as potential reservoirs of zoonotic helminthiases.
Background: Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus. Opcitin is a glycoprotein present in the vitreous body. Its role in diabetic retinopathy needs to be further defined.
Objective: Investigate and compare the mRNA and protein levels of opticin in vitreous body and retina in normal and diabetic rats.
Methods: Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into two groups (12/group), a streptozocin-induced diabetes (STZ) group and a control group. In the STZ group, 1% sterile STZ solution was injected into the rats intraperitonally (60mg/kg). An equal volume of sodium citrate buffer solution was administrated in the rats from the control group. The rats were sacrificed one month after various treatments. The eye bodies of three rats from each group were removed and fixed with 4% paraformaldehydeion for the following pathological analysis. Meanwhile, the vitreous bodies and retina of the other nine rats from each group were removed for the real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, and western blot assays.
Results: The mRNA level of opticin in the vitreous body of diabetes mellitus (DM) rats was 5.66% of that of the control ones (p <0.01). The expression of opticin mRNA in retina of DM rats was 9.28% of that of the control ones (p <0.01). In addition, opticin protein was expressed in the vitreous body and retina of the normal rats, whereas it was negative in the DM ones.
Conclusions: The opticin expression in vitreous body and retina of diabetes rats was significantly decreased or even disappeared, which may suggest a key role of opticin in the development of diabetic retinopathy.
Petar T. Iliev, Georgi Zh. Georgiev, Zvezdelina T. Kirkova and Borislava G. Chakarova
A field study was conducted to disclose the prevalence of different helminth parasites in the black rat, Rattus rattus, in some regions of Stara Zagora district, Bulgaria. Out of 67 examined rats, 53 (79.1%) were found to be positive. Helminths of three classes were detected such as Cestoda: Hymenolepis diminuta (47.8%), Hymenolepis nana (43.3%), Taenia taeniaeformis larvae (7.5%), Taenia polyacantha larvae (1.5%); Secernentea: Syphacia obvelata (4.5%), Aspiculuris tetraptera (3.0%) and Adenophorea: Capillaria hepatica (9.0%), Trichuris muris (3.0%). Of all the investigated rats, 27 (40.3%) were infected by one helminth species and 26 (38.8%) by more than one. Hymenolepis diminuta was a predominant species in cases of single infections (23.9%). The most frequent co-infections were observed by H. nana and H. diminuta (16.4%).
Magnesium chloride was given via drinking water (500 mg Mg/L) to rats exposed intragastrically to cadmium (cadmium 109) at a dose corresponding to 10 mg/kg diet for 7, 14, 21, and 28 d. The results provided the evidence that magnesium decreased cadmium retention in the duodenum, kidneys, and liver after 7 d. Significant reduction in cadmium retention was also found on days 14 d and 21 in kidneys. No significant decreases in cadmium retention in the organs examined were noted after 28 d. The results suggest that beneficial action of magnesium on body cadmium accumulation ceased with time after the two metal administration.
George Jîtcă, Bianca-Eugenia Ősz, Szende Vancea, Amalia Miklos and Amelia Tero-Vescan
Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a LC-MS method to determine amiodarone (AMI) and its major metabolite desethylamiodarone (DEA) from rat plasma released from the adipose tissue of AMI treated rats subjected to a weight gain/weight loss cycle. Methods: Separation of the compounds was performed on a Kinetex 2.6 μm C18 100 x 4.6 mm column under isocratic conditions using a mixture of acetonitrile: 0.1% formic acid 65:35 at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. Detection of the analyte was performed by electrospray positive ionization, the monitored ions being 135 m/z from 646 for AMI and 135 m/z of 618 for DEA. Analytes were extracted after plasma protein precipitation with methanol. Results: The developed method presented specificity and linearity on the concentration range of 25-2500 ng/ml plasma for AMI and 2.5-1250 ng/ml plasma for DEA and the precision and accuracy of the method at all of quality control concentration levels including LLOQ were according to official guidelines for validating analytical methods. Conclusions: A sensitive and accurate LC-MS method has been developed with a much lower LLOQ than literature data to detect the plasma concentration differences of the studied analytes that result from forced lipolysis and mobilization from the adipose tissue.
Alicja Nowak, Maria Pogrzebna, Jan Celichowski and Łucja Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak
Serum Osteocalcin Concentration in Treadmill-Trained Adult Male Wistar Rats
Mechanical stress is considered to be essential for the regulation of bone mass. The purpose of this study was to determine whether treadmill exercise at moderate intensity induces alterations in blood osteocalcin concentration in rats. Male Wistar rats, aged 5 months, were divided randomly into two groups: trained animals (n = 6) and controls (n = 7). Trained rats were exercised 5 days/week for 4 weeks on a motor-driven treadmill. Each exercise session lasted 60 minutes and the average locomotion speed was 16.2 m/min. After completion of the training period, a blood sample was taken for osteocalcin measurement and the hindlimbs medial gastrocnemius muscles were excised and weighed. Comparative analysis showed significantly lower circulating osteocalcin levels in the exercised rats in comparison to control animals. It is possible that the observed decreased blood osteocalcin concentration is transient in nature. Factors including stress may also influenced the results.
Serum osteocalcin concentration in treadmill-trained rats
V. Sloup, I. Jankovská, I. Langrová, M. Štolcová, S. Sloup, S. Nechybová and P. Peřinková
The experiment was conducted on 18 Wistar rats during a six-week period; 12 animals were given zinc lactate (120 mg/rat and week) in feed mixture and 6 control animals were fed a standard mixture for rats (ST-1). Sixteen biochemical parameters were measured from blood (serum) samples: total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), urea (UREA), glucose (GLU), triacylglycerols (TAG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol (CHOL), creatinine (CREAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), uric acid (UA), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and trace elements such as Fe and Zn. When compared to the control group, we found that rats fed zinc lactate had higher concentrations of GLU, UA, UREA, Fe, Mg, Ca, TAG, TP, ALB, and ALP in the blood serum. Contrarily, the concentrations of AST, NEFA, CHOL, CREAT, P, and Zn were higher in the blood serum of control rats. Statistically significant differences between rats fed Zn and the control were found only in the concentrations of GLU, AST, ALP, UA, and P.
The prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is very controversial. There is no conclusive evidence for increased risk of malformations after SSRI use in pregnancy. The aim of the study was to determine how fluoxetine is affecting gestation and fetal development in rats. Twenty sexually mature female Wistar rats weighting between 250-260 g received 20 mg/kg body weight fluoxetine from the first day of gestation and during the entire gestation period.The drug was administered by oral route. Healthy, primipareus animals were selected along with 20 female Wistar rats, as control group. Mature males were caged with virgin females for an entire week. Rat’s behaviour during gestation, after birth and rats body weight was examined. The number of healthy pups was also noted. The females not giving birth after 21 days to any pup were anesthetized (halothane through gas scavenging apparatus untilled death) and the gravid uterus were dissected out and examined. Compared to the controlled group, in which weight gain was more significant, the animals from the experimental group had a slight increase in body weight. The weight gain normally induced by gestation, is less significant in fluoxetine treated rats due to the increase serotonin levels in the brain. The uteri examination of pregnant rats showed an increase in the number of dead and resorbed rat embryos. Preclinical studies suggest that the inclusion of fluoxetine in pregnancy category C is justified and the appropriateness of its administration in pregnancy is still an unresolved issue.
Andrzej Grosicki, Paweł Małagocki, Anna Kycko, Jerzy Monkiewicz and Waldemar Korol
The importance of magnesium supplements on organ retention of cadmium and allometric parameters after repeated exposure to cadmium chloride were studied in male Wistar rats. Magnesium chloride was given via drinking water (500 mg Mg/L) to rats exposed intragastrically to cadmium chloride (labelled with cadmium 109) at a daily dose corresponding to 25 mg/kg diet for 7, 14, 21, and 28 d. Supplements of magnesium temporarily decreased cadmium retention in the duodenum and liver. No significant differences in cadmium retention were evidenced in the kidneys and testicles. The supplements of magnesium also retain more of the body weight gains and restore the relative liver and testicle weight in rats intoxicated with cadmium. Comparison of the present results with earlier reports suggests a relationship between doses of magnesium and cadmium; higher doses of cadmium need more magnesium to overcome toxic action of the heavy metal.
I. Hodorova, J. Mihalik, J. Vecanova, M. Dankova and S. Rybarova
Renal Ontogeny of P-Glycoprotein/MDR1 in Rat
BACKGROUND: P-glycoprotein (Pgp/MDR1) is an ATP-dependent, integral plasma-membrane efflux pump that is constitutively expressed on adult apical brush-border epithelium of renal proximal tubules. This Pgp/MDR1 tissue distribution and localization affects the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of Pgp/MDR1 substrates. The ontogeny of rat Pgp/MDR1 is still doubtful, and such knowledge may be helpful in understanding age-related pharmacokinetics. The purpose of this study was to determine, whether Pgp/MDR1 expression is altered during development.
METHODS: Postnatal expression of Pgp was determined using immunohistochemical method. Tissue from Wistar rat were isolated on the 1st day (D1), 7th day (D7), 14th day (D14), 21st day of life (D21) and from adult animals (60 days old; Ad).
RESULTS: Our ontogeny study illustrated that expression of Pgp was relatively constant from birth to adulthood.
CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of the ontogeny of transport proteins involved in distribution and elimination of drugs is important for adequate interpretation of the results of toxicity studies in juvenile animals.