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E. Káňová, I. Jiménez-Munguía, Ľ. Čomor, Z. Tkáčová, I. Širochmanová, K. Bhide and M. Bhide

Abstract

Neisseria meningitidis is a Gram-negative diplococcus responsible for bacterial meningitis and fatal sepsis. Ligand-receptor interactions are one of the main steps in the development of neuroinvasion. Porin B (PorB), neisserial outer membrane protein (ligand), binds to host receptors and triggers many cell signalling cascades allowing the meningococcus to damage the host cells or induce immune cells responses via the TLR2-dependent mechanisms. In this paper, we present a brief review of the structure and function of PorB.

Open access

Katharina Helm

Abstract

This paper introduces the results of a two-stage analysis of one Japanese mainstream and one women’s pornographic film from the Internet, asking whether any differences between the gender representations of both sexes can be observed, and whether these differences correspond to the films’ Western counterparts. In the first stage, the films are being analysed regarding their correspondence to characteristics of mainstream pornography and, respectively, criteria of women’s pornography, which were developed through Western feminists’ debates. The detailed case studies of the two films that were selected as examples deal with their general and sexual contents, aesthetic elements, dialogues, and the appearance of the characters. In the second stage, the gender roles are being examined. The analysis firstly confirms that both films correspond to their Western counterparts and that they contain substantial differences concerning contents, aesthetic elements, dialogues, and the quality of the displayed relationship of the characters. Secondly, the paper shows that the gender representations in the mainstream pornographic film stick to conventional gender roles related to this genre, with an emphasis on male-centered sexual practices, which are linked to the female body’s objectification. By contrast, the women’s pornographic film features-besides female-friendly sexual practices-non-sexual aspects of the relationship between the characters and introduces an alternative male role model.

Open access

Kreetachon Veerakikosol, Pajaree Chariyavilaskul, Natavudh Townamchai and Supeecha Wittayalertpanya

Abstract

Background

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A5 is a major isoform metabolizing tacrolimus. Individual variation in the metabolism may result from CYP3A5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). CYP3A5*3 polymorphism is strongly associated with tacrolimus pharmacokinetic variations in 65%–85% of Asian populations. A minor polymorphism related to requirement for tacrolimus is the POR*28 mutation, which increases in vivo CYP3A activity for tacrolimus. These two SNPs might affect individual maintenance dosages of tacrolimus.

Objectives

To determine the association of CYP3A5*3 and POR*28 SNPs with maintenance dosage requirements for tacrolimus in Thai recipients of kidney transplants.

Methods

We enrolled 150 Thai recipients of kidney transplants. Clinical laboratory data were recorded 3 months after first administration of tacrolimus. Two SNPs; rs776746 A > G (CYP3A5*3 allele) and rs1057868 C > T (POR*28 allele) were assessed. All 300 genotypes were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reactions.

Results

Recipients were classified into 9 groups according to possible matching genotypes. The mean dosage required for the maintenance phase was significantly higher in the CYP3A5*1 allele or CYP3A5 expressers (groups 1-6, 0.163, 0.167, 0.141, 0.128, 0.131, and 0.174 mg/kg/day, respectively) than those not expressing CYP3A5*3/*3 or CYP3A5 (groups 7-9, 0.081, 0.073, and 0.069 mg/kg/day, respectively, P < 0.05). When the mean dosage was compared under POR*28 one or two alleles in CYP3A5 expressers, P was significantly smaller than in CYP3A5 expressers with POR*1/*1.

Conclusions

CYP3A5 polymorphism is key to determining tacrolimus dosage requirements during the maintenance phase in kidney transplant recipients and POR*28 may contribute to the interindividual variability