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Dog rabies: the first case reported from Sultanate of Oman

Abstract

Background: There has been no report of dog rabies in Sultanate of Oman, possibly due to an inadequate active and passive surveillance and response system.

Methods: We recently developed Fluorescent Antibody Test (FAT) and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a sensitive diagnosis of rabies.

Results: We present the first laboratory proven canine rabies case in Sultanate of Oman. Laboratory facilities for sensitive diagnosis are now available in Sultanate of Oman.

Conclusion: A systematic surveillance system for rabies in domesticated dogs will have a good influence on the control of this zoonotic infection in Sultanate of Oman.

Open access
Entrepreneurial Ecosystem: An Exploration of the Entrepreneurship Model for SMEs in Sultanate of Oman

Abstract

SME has a significant impact on the growth and development of any nation economy. The entrepreneurship in Oman expected to be a leading factor in the economic due to the opportunities afforded by increasing economic diversification and corresponding rise in job opportunities and other benefits. However, entrepreneurship has faced many challenges and obstacles to its progress and growth in Oman, despite the fact that the government has supported this sector to stimulate the market. However, studies show that many challenges are still plague both startups and governments. This study therefore aims to develop an ecosystem for entrepreneurship in the Omani context as a new solution to overcome such challenges. Entrepreneurship ecosystem has a positive influence on business growth and on the creation of new businesses, with the result that this concept has received attention from both academics and policy makers. By using a qualitative research method, a total of 10 interviewees were selected to answer the major research questions and thus provide more explanation about the issues that SME faces and find the exact factors that can influence these types of enterprises. Based on the findings from qualitative research through discussions with entrepreneurs, we can conclude that there are five factors: human capital; government; support; finance and technology, all of which have a significant impact on Omani entrepreneurship success and start-ups. These results contribute to the current literature regarding entrepreneurship ecosystems. They also give greater attention to the policy makers in Oman who facilitate the implementation of this framework as well as motivating the different business owners or start-ups to develop their business strategies based on the requirements shown in the framework. In addition, a number of suggestions have been presented as focus points when developing a strategic plan to support the entrepreneurship sector.

Open access
Distribution of coccolithophores as a potential proxy in paleoceanography: The case of the Oman Sea monsoonal pattern

Abstract

High abundances of coccoliths have been observed in surface sediment samples from near the coasts of the Oman Sea in February 2011. At the end of the NE monsoon, the locally observed high Gephyrocapsa oceanica production is hypothesized to respond to local injections of nutrient-rich deep water into the surface water due to sea-surface cooling leading to convection. The most abundant coccolithophore species are G. oceanica followed by Emiliania huxleyi, Helicosphaera carteri, Calcidiscus leptoporus. Some species, such as Gephyrocapsa muellerae, Gephyrocapsa ericsonii, Umbilicosphaera sibogae, Umbellosphaera tenuis and Florisphaera profunda, are rare. The G. oceanica suggested a prevalence of upwelling conditions or high supply of nutrients in the Oman Sea (especially West Jask) at the end of the NE monsoon. E. huxleyi showed low relative abundances at the end of the NE monsoon. Due to the location of the Oman Sea in low latitudes with high temperatures, we have observed low abundances of G. muellerae in the study area. Additionally, we have identified low abundances of G. ericsonii at the end of the NE monsoon. Helicosphaera carteri showed a clear negative response with decreasing amounts (relative abundances) at the end of the NE monsoon. C. leptoporus, U. sibogae and U. tenuis have very low relative abundances in the NE monsoon and declined extremely at the end of the NE monsoon. F. profunda, which is known to inhabit the lower photic zone (<100 m depht) was rarely observed in the samples.

Open access
Geological importance of luminescence dates in Oman and the Emirates: An overview

Abstract

In the Wahiba Sands of eastern Oman, luminescence dating of sands enables us to relate wind activity to climatic variations and the monsoon cycle. These changes resulted from Polar glacial/interglacial cyclicity and changes in global sea levels and wind strengths. Luminescence dates show that development of the Sands began over 230 ka ago when the sand-driving winds were the locally arid, northward-blowing SW Monsoon.

During late Quaternary low sea levels, the Tigris-Euphrates river system flowed across the floor of the Persian/Arabian Gulf to the Gulf of Oman SE of the Strait of Hormuz. OSL-dated sands containing calcareous bioclastic fragments deflated from the exposed Gulf floor during glacial low-water periods indicate that during the last glacial cycle, and at least one earlier cycle (∼120–200 ka and possibly as far back as 291 ka), the floor of the Arabian Gulf was exposed. This is deduced from the presence of aeolian dune sands containing bioclastic detritus on the coastal plain of the Emirates and south into Al Liwa (Abu Dhabi), which were built by northern “Shamal” winds. Those calcareous sands now locally overlie sabkhas formed during interglacial high sea levels. Within the present interglacial, marine flooding of the Gulf occurred between about 12 and 6 ka.

Open access
Integration auf Zeit für ein Leben in Transition: Gesellschaftlicher und politischer Umgang mit den Herausforderungen einer segmentierten städtischen Migrationsgesellschaft in Muscat (Oman)

Zusammenfassung

Der Beitrag beleuchtet das Themenfeld „Internationale Migration und Integration“ aus einer nicht alltäglichen Perspektive, um den Blick auf die gesellschaftlichen und politischen Herausforderungen zu erweitern: Betrachtet wird das heterogene Zusammensein in der städtischen Gesellschaft von Muscat, der Hauptstadt des Sultanats Oman, die sich seit dem Modernisierungsprozess nach 1970 zu einer segmentierten Migrationsgesellschaft entwickelte. Das Besondere an dieser jungen dynamischen Zuwanderungsgesellschaft ist, dass eine (dauerhafte) Integration weder von omanischer Seite noch von Seiten der ausländischen Arbeitnehmerinnen und Arbeitnehmer vorgesehen ist. Daher wird „Integration auf Zeit“ als eine alternative Form des gesellschaftlichen Miteinanders aus den verschiedenen Blickwinkeln der Beteiligten diskutiert. Zunächst werden einige konzeptionelle Überlegungen zur Analyse von Integration angestellt, um anschließend die gesellschaftlichen und politischen Rahmenbedingungen zu thematisieren, welche die Arbeitssituation der Ausländer in Oman reglementieren: das Sponsorship-System und die Omanisierungspolitik. Darauf aufbauend werden die Integrationsmöglichkeiten und -erwartungen der Migranten anhand der räumlichen Praxis am Beispiel der beiden zentralen Aspekte Wohnstandortwahl und Mobilitätsmöglichkeiten diskutiert. Die sozioökonomische Position sowie die Anerkennung aufgrund des Berufs- und Bildungsstatus zeigen sich dabei als die wesentlichen Kriterien.

Open access
A taxonomic review of the genus Clitobius with description of a new species from Oman (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

Abstract

Based on external and internal morphological characters, Apithesis obesa Waterhouse, 1881 (of the monotypical genus Apithesis Waterhouse, 1881) is redescribed and transferred from the tribe Ulomini to the tribe Opatrini where it is incorporated in Clitobius Mulsant & Rey, 1859. Preliminary review of the taxonomy and distribution of Clitobius is performed. The following names are placed in synonymy: Clitobius Mulsant & Rey, 1859 = Apithesis Waterhouse, 1881, syn. nov. = Apteroclitobius Koch, 1960, syn. nov.; Clitobius ovatus (Erichson, 1843) = Halonomus salinicola Wollaston, 1861, syn. nov.; Clitobius oblongiusculus (Fairmaire, 1875) = Clitobius ovatus borkouensis Pierre, 1961, syn. nov.; Clitobius obesus (Waterhouse, 1881), comb. nov. = Clitobius pseudalatus Koch, 1960, syn. nov. Clitobius omanicus sp. nov. is described from Oman. A key to the species of Clitobius is presented. Distributional patterns within the genus are analysed and discussed.

Open access