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Open access

Anneka Mordhorst, Heiner Fleige, Iris Zimmermann, Bernd Burbaum, Marek Filipinski, Eckhard Cordsen and Rainer Horn

Zusammenfassung

Die Verbesserung der Humusspeicherung in Böden im Hinblick auf eine nachhaltige Landbewirtschaftung erfordert genaue Kenntnisse über den organischen Kohlenstoff(Corg)-Vorrat in Böden, wobei auch die Wechselwirkungen zwischen Bodentyp, geologischem Ausgangsgestein sowie Landnutzung berücksichtigt werden müssen. Auf der Grundlage von insgesamt 925 Bodenprofilen in den vier Hauptnaturräumen (Östliches Hügelland, Vorgeest, Hohe Geest und Marsch) Schleswig-Holsteins (Norddeutschland) wurde der Corg-Vorrat bis in eine Tiefe von 90 cm quantifiziert. Die horizontspezifischen Parameter (u. a. auch Trockenrohdichte und Korngrößenverteilung) wurden im Rahmen der seit ca. 1970 durchgeführten bodenkundlichen Leitprofilaufnahmen vom Landesamt für Landwirtschaft, Umwelt und ländliche Räume Schleswig-Holstein (LLUR) und deren Vorgängerbehörden erhoben. Die vier Hauptnaturräume enthalten unterschiedliche Corg-Vorräte in den Bodentiefen 0–30, 30–60 und 60–90 cm. Insgesamt werden in Schleswig-Holstein mindestens 244 Mt Corg (0–90 cm Tiefe) gespeichert, wobei je nach Landnutzung, Bodentyp und geologischem Ausgangsgestein deutliche Unterschiede auftreten. Im Oberboden variieren die Corg-Vorräte von ca. 60 t/ha (Ackerböden der Marsch/des Östlichen Hügellands) bis ca. 130 t/ha (Grünlandböden der Geest). Im Unterboden verfügen neben den Mooren die humusreichen Marschböden, die Kolluvisole (Alt- und Jungmoränengebiet) und Gley-Podsole (Hohe Geest und Vorgeest) über die höchsten Corg-Vorräte bis 90 cm Tiefe. Das Speicher- und Verlustpotenzial von Humusmengen durch einen Landnutzungswechsel ist daher auch bodentypspezifisch zu bewerten.

Open access

Natalia Tatuśko, Donata Kosicka-Dziechciarek and Mateusz Pluta

Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of straw of two spring wheat cultivars, Tybalt – with the culm filled with pith, and Ostka Smolicka – with the hollow culm, added to light textured soil, on the mineralisation rate of organic matter. The incubation experiment was established under laboratory conditions and comprised three experimental combinations: K1 was soil with an addition of pith-filled culms, K2 – soil with an addition of straw with hollow culms, and K0 – the control with no straw added. In all the combinations, mineral fertilisation was applied in the form of urea. Incubation lasted for 14 months. At specific dates the amounts of CO2 released within 24 h and pH values were recorded. The rate of organic matter mineralisation was expressed in mg CO2·d−1. Analyses showed that the addition of straw, both with pith-filled and hollow culms, significantly influenced the mineralisation of organic matter in the first months of incubation. Mineralisation was most intensive in the soil incubated with straw with hollow culms. The large amount of released carbon dioxide in the first days of incubation caused a decrease in pH both in the control soil and in soils with the addition of straw. The change in the soil reaction to its initial value was recorded at day 222 for the soil combination K0 and at day 250 of incubation in soils fertilised with straw.

Open access

Iulia Nitu, Ovidiu Murarescu, George Muratoreanu, Madalina Frinculeasa and Aurelia Corina Cosac

Abstract

Water intended for human consumption (whether natural or after applying appropriate treatment techniques) must comply with the values of quality parameters according to the laws and regulations in force. The geographical area analysed in this study covers part of Dambovita County and lies at the contact between the Outer Subcarpathian Hills at the Curvature and Candesti Piedmont, the High Plain of Targoviste and Titu Subsidence Plain. Considering that the population in this area is also supplied with water from individual wells, which capture surface aquifers, changes in some potability parameters may appear punctually, inducing a number of health impairments if consumed over a long period of time. 12 sample points have been chosen in localities considered to be vulnerable and a number of parameters (pH, Ca2+, Cl-) have been analysed in the laboratory. Analyses have revealed excessive MAC (Maximum Allowable Concentration) in some locations such as Glodeni and Gheboaia.

Open access

Samia Benrabah, Badra Attoui and Mani Hannouche

Abstract

In spite of the abundance of water resources in the watershed of Khenchela region, the strong urban growth and the expansion of agricultural land resulted in a considerable increase in water needs. This fact exposed groundwater and surface vulnerability to an overlooked growing pollution.

In this vein, this study aims to determine the global quality of groundwater oriented to drinking water supply in Khenchela city. It focuses particularly on looking for minerals, nutrients and salt concentration and to assess their spatial and temporal variability. This area has been the subject of several previous studies due to the importance of its watershed (hydrology, geology, geomorphology, bacteriology...). The dosage of the considered parameters revealed vulnerability of water of the North and the North Western part of the watershed to the strong mineralization and excess of organic minerals. This requires in the short term an obligation to treat this water before distribution. A permanent monitoring and the use of other evaluation means for quality protection of this vulnerable resource have been taken into account.

Open access

Jadwiga Pieczonka

Polymetallic mineralization in Triassic strata of the NW part of the Kraków-Częstochowa Monocline

A new association of ore minerals has been found in the Lower and Middle Triassic rocks in the vicinity of the village of Woźniki in the NW part of the Upper Silesian district. In addition to the typical Zn-Pb-Fe association in dolomites, copper sulphides have been detected in the sandstones and conglomerates of the Lower Bunter. Copper mineralization occurs in the sandstone matrix and is represented by bornite, chalcopyrite, chalcocite, tetrahedrite and covellite. High admixtures of zinc in Cu sulphides and admixtures of copper in Zn-Pb sulphides suggest a common source for the metal-transporting fluids and a single period of sulphide crystallization.

Open access

Anna Charuta, Barbara Biesiada-Drzazga, Małgorzata Dzierzęcka, Ewa Poławska, Matylda Trusewicz and Ross Gordon Cooper

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate geometrical parameters of tibiotarsal bones in geese depending on age, sex and place in the bone and conditions of breeding. The inner structure of tibiotarsal bones of White Kołuda® geese (W31) subjected to intensive breeding was analyzed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT ). The analyzed bones were derived from birds representing five age groups: one-day-old as well as birds of 2, 4, 6 and 8 wk of age. Bones of 10 males and 10 females were isolated from each group. The analysis was conducted at two levels of the bone: the area of the proximal metaphysis and at half the length of the diaphysis. The proximal metaphysis was selected for the research as it had higher content of the cancellous bone than the distal metaphysis. It was known that the cancellous bone was characterized by a higher rate of metabolic changes. The following geometric parameters were determined: total bone area (TOT _A), trabecular area (TRAB _A), cortical area (CRT _A), cortical thickness (CRT _TH K_C), periosteal circumference (PERI C), endocortical circumference (ENDO _C) and Strength Strain Index (SSI ). It was found that 6 wk of life may be considered as critical in the postnatal development of geese. In the group of 6 wk males in the shafts of the tibial bones, there was a decrease in the values of the following parameters: TOT _A, TRAB _A, PERI _C, ENDO _C. Whereas in 8 wk, an attenuation of the values of all geometric parameters of tibiotarsal bones was observed in both sexes (with the exception of CRT _TH K_C), which may have a negative influence on bone resistance to fractures. In this period, a significant decrease in the values of geometric parameters of tibiotarsal bones could be observed, negatively affecting the resistance of the bone to fractures in 8 wk. The values of SSI parameter at the proximal metaphysis of the tibiotarsal bone decreased in both males and females in 8 wk. In turn, at mid-diaphysis, the SSI values decreased only in males in 8 wk. The achieved results and observations justify the use of optimal environmental and nutritional conditions in geese in order to improve the quality of their skeletal system and to minimize the risk of the occurrence of deformities and fractures of the pelvic limb during the breeding.

Open access

Soumaya Boussaha and Aziz Laifa

Abstract

Nowadays, problems with wastes constitute a danger increasingly important for the recipient environments. Indeed, the water is affected in an increasing way by mineral and organic materials from which some ones are pathogenic and thus dangerous for the ecosystem. It is in this context that the present study took place, it relates to the surface waters pollution of the Wadi Bounamoussa in the Algeria northeast. The study concerns the analysis of physical and chemical parameters of waters such as: temperature (T), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), Cl-, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total absorbance colour (TAC), total hardness (TH), PO4 3-, total phosphorus (Ptot) along the wadi in one year long survey (October 2013 to July 2014). Waters were sampled at ten study sites with a quarterly sampling. In order to establish a relationship between various physical and chemical parameters and for a better assessment the anthropogenic effect on the Wadi Bounamoussa's water quality, we have processed a statistical treatment by means of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). PCA has revealed two gradients. The first reflects the eutrophication caused by chemical fertilizers used in agriculture and the intensive livestock farming development, while the second describes the resulting water mineralization of high rates of the Cl- and EC. Moreover, PCA has allowed discriminating the stations according to their physical and chemical data. This study has allowed us also to reveal the influence of seasonal variations.

Open access

Szilvia Sári and Edit Forró

Characterization of Peat-Free Organic Media in Pepper (Capsicum Annuum L.) Production

Several materials of organic origin (peats, composts, pine bark) were tested in vegetable growing, the test plant was pepper (Capsicum annuum L., cv. Danubia). The main objective was to find out how to apply of these materials efficiently in intensive growing. The effect of the media on the yielding of pepper was also examined. Soil samples were measured for various pedological properties. The hydrolizable nitrogen-content decreased in the media except for composts where it increased significantly (SD95%=25.61 and 20.48). Composts and pine bark were rich in potassium and phosphorus. High electrical conductivity (EC) was determined in green waste compost I. (EC=3.5) when sand was added to green waste compost II (EC=2.9) the EC decreased significantly (SD95%=0.33). The mixture of high- and low-moor peat gave the highest yield (9.3 kg.m-2), composts (6.1 and 5.7 kg.m-2) and pine bark (6.3 kg.m-2) gave significantly lower yields (SD95%=0.43). It was concluded that the examined peat-free media can be valuable components of soil mixtures.

Open access

Antoni Muszer, Adam Szuszkiewicz and Krzysztof Łobos

New Occurrence of Clausthalite (PbSe) in the Sudetes (SW Poland)

The presence of clausthalite in the area of old mining works near Dziećmorowice in the Sowie Mts (SW Poland) is reported here for the first time. The identification of the clausthalite is based on macro- and microscopic observations, reflectance measurements, chemical analyses and X-ray diffraction data. The clausthalite, together with uraninite, forms veinlets in a breccia comprising <50% calc-silicate rock fragments. Different polishing hardnesses suggest some variation in the mineral structure of individual clausthalite grains. Chemical spot analyses do not reveal elements other than Pb and Se though calculated unit-cell parameters may suggest minor substitution of S for Se.

Open access

Łukasz Karwowski and Marek Markowiak

Abstract

In one small mineral vein in core from borehole 144-Ż in the Żarki-Kotowice area, almost all of the ore minerals known from related deposits in the vicinity occur. Some of the minerals in the vein described in this paper, namely, nickeline, hessite, native silver and minerals of the cobaltite-gersdorffite group, have not previously been reported from elsewhere in the Kraków-Lubliniec tectonic zone. The identified minerals are chalcopyrite, pyrite, marcasite, sphalerite, Co-rich pyrite, tennantite, tetrahedrite, bornite, galena, magnetite, hematite, cassiterite, pyrrhotite, wolframite (ferberite), scheelite, molybdenite, nickeline, minerals of the cobaltitegersdorffite group, carrollite, hessite and native silver. Moreover, native bismuth, bismuthinite, a Cu- and Ag-rich sulfosalt of Bi (cuprobismutite) and Ni-rich pyrite also occur in the vein. We suggest that, the ore mineralization from the borehole probably reflects post-magmatic hydrothermal activity related to an unseen granitic intrusion located under the Mesozoic sediments in the Żarki-Pilica area.