Dorota Kowalsk, Mariusz Pietras and Paweł Bielański
Effect of Ghrelin and Ration Composition on Milk Output and Feed Intake in Rabbits
The aim of the study was to determine plasma ghrelin concentrations in rabbits. The first part of the experiment focused on plasma ghrelin concentrations in does which were at different physiological stages and received diets with different fat contents. Plasma ghrelin levels were determined in 3-month-old rabbits after 12-hour feed withdrawal and 60 minutes after feed intake. The second part of the experiment investigated the effect of exogenous ghrelin administered to dams on the course of the lactation and weight gains of young rabbits from birth to weaning. The results of the first experiment show that plasma ghrelin levels vary according to the physiological stage of the does. The addition of 2% rapeseed oil to the diet of the does had an inhibitory effect on ghrelin secretion by significantly decreasing its plasma levels. Analysis of plasma ghrelin levels in 3-month-old rabbits subjected to feed withdrawal and following food intake revealed that ghrelin secretion increased when both oil-enriched and unsupplemented diets were fed after feed withdrawal. Ghrelin levels began to decline postprandially. The second part of the experiment demonstrated that ghrelin administered intraperitoneally to the lactating does had an effect on the milk output of the does and thus on the weight gains of the young rabbits.
Jim Weber, Markus Zenker, Gábor Köller, Manfred Fürll and Markus Freick
Recumbency is a frequent symptom occurring throughout lactation. Its cause can be related to the energy or mineral metabolism, or to trauma or infectious diseases. We compared various clinical chemistry parameters between healthy and recumbent cows and between cows with different causes of recumbency and determined if hypocalcaemia manifests in later lactation.
Material and Methods
Recumbent (n = 32) and healthy (n = 32) German Holstein cows were studied. After clinical examination, a serum sample was taken to measure the concentrations of Mg, Ca, Fe, Na, K, Pi, β-hydroxybutyrate, total bilirubin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), urea, and creatinine as well as activities of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), and γ-glutamyl transferase in recumbent cows > 5 d in milk and control cows matched for age, lactation number, and pregnancy stage.
In recumbent cows, mean serum concentrations of NEFA, bilirubin, and CK were statistically higher, while those of Fe, K, and Pi were significantly lower. Parameters compared between different recumbency diagnoses showed some descriptive Fe, K, urea, and AST differences, but these were not statistically significant.
The results show that only a limited number of parameters have diagnostic besides therapeutic value. Although of minor importance in our study, hypocalcaemia should be considered a cause of recumbency, even outside the typical risk period of parturient paresis.
Introduction. During the lactation period, energy demand and nutritional needs increase in woman. The basis of proper nutrition should consist of a balanced diet and concomitant vitamins and minerals supplementation in doses recommended by major scientific societies. Lactation has a priority over metabolic processes in mother. It absorbs 400-670 kcal per day and increases in case of multiples. Breastfeeding is the best method of feeding infants during their first 6 months of life, therefore it should be promoted among mothers and supported by qualified specialists. According to The World Health Organization (WHO) and The European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition [ESPGHAN], the percentage of women continuing breastfeeding at the child’s age of six months is low and in Poland it is 4-9% for exclusive breastfeeding and 63% for partial breastfeeding. In Europe, only in four countries the percentage of women continuing exclusive breastfeeding at infant’s 6 months of age exceeds 30% (Hungary, Malta, Portugal, Slovakia). Aim. The following article is a collection of current recommendations on vitamins and minerals supplementation during lactation. In addition to the recommendations, practical aspects of successful lactation and its impact on the health of infants and mothers have been described.
The production of milk, the quantity of fat respectively constitute the main criterion of assessment of dairy cows in the mountain area and downhill. The average performance in the succession of eight lactations per total lactation is 3420.67 kg, and per normal lactation is 3209.20 kg milk. The limits vary between 1506 kg of milk and 8835 kg milk recorded for lactation and 1506 kg of milk and 7322 kg milk for normal lactation. The study of statistical parameters of index of the total duration of lactation allows us to affirm that the cows from the herd studied have the genetic potential to increase lactation beyond the limits of normal lactation of 305 per days. Milk production per day is higher with + 0.45 kg per total lactation than normal lactation. Extension of lactation and breast resting shortening represents loss of milk production in both current lactation and the next lactation. To estimate the effect of localities was used the analysis of variance within samples. Raw data tables have been processed to create tables of variances between herds of the 6 localities and within the herd in each locality. The influence of the locality on the milk production is null.
The output production of milk cows has as enablers: daily output and duration of lactation on her. The raise of the productive cows milk level in the mountain area and hence income breeders is achievable through the integration and expansion of biotechnology.
Nicolae Cărătuș, Livia Vidu and Gheorghe Emil Mărginean
In the paper we analyzed the situation of animal breeding in the center region and the evolution of the Romanian Spotted breed. In 2017 there were included in the Official Production Control a number of 130.765 cows of the Romanian Spotted breed cows. A program of improvement of the breed towards the two productions, milk and meat was established.
Katarzyna Ognik, Krzysztof Patkowski, Tomasz Gruszecki and Krzysztof Kostro
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the perinatal period on redox status indicators in the blood of ewes before and after lambing and during lactation. The study was performed on 12 ewes of the synthetic SCP line. Blood for testing of redox parameters was collected seven times: before pregnancy, 1.5 months and 24 h before lambing, 2 and 24 h after lambing, and in the fourth and eighth weeks of lactation. The following blood indices were determined by spectrophotometry: lipid peroxides, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, plasma total antioxidant capacity, uric acid, urea, bilirubin, and creatinine. The tests showed that during the perinatal period reactions are generated which lead to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress in pregnant ewes was found to increase during the period before lambing and may persist even up to weeks 4-8 of lactation.
Bogdan Dębski, Tadeusz Nowicki, Wojciech Zalewski, Agnieszka Bartoszewicz and Jan Twardoń
Introduction: The transition period is the most challenging time for dairy cattle, which is characterised not only by negative energy balance but also by fatty tissue mobilisation.
Material and Methods: The efficiency of energy pathways, β-oxidation in WBC and glycolysis in RBC (based on deoxyglucose transmembrane transport) were estimated. Insulin in blood plasma was determined using ELISA.
Results: After calving and up to one month after delivery, a significant drop in blood plasma level was noticed, simultaneously with a rise in β-oxidation from 18.93 ±3.64 to 30.32 ±5.28 pmol/min/mg protein in WBC. A strong negative correlation between these two indices (r = −0.68) was found. During the period of transition to lactation an increase in glucose cross-membrane transportation from 41.44 ±4.92 to 50.49 ±6.41 μmol/h/g Hb was observed. A strong positive correlation between glucose transportation in RBC and β-oxidation in WBC (r = 0.71) was noticed. These data are in agreement with results of studies on dairy cows using liver slices from dairy cows in late pregnancy and different stages of lactation, in which changes in gene expression were analysed.
Conclusion: It seems that measuring fatty acids oxidation and glycolysis using isolated blood cells may be an adequate and relatively simple method for energy state analysis to estimate the state of dairy cow metabolism and animal health.
Milk analysis was performed in Black-and-White cows with a different percentage of Holstein- Friesian (HF) genes, which calved in 1995-2008 and were included in the milk recording programme. The aim of the present study was to determine the somatic cell level in milk obtained during the extended lactation phase (from day 306 to the end of lactation) compared to the standard lactation. The average somatic cell count in the milk of cows in extended lactation was 409,000 in the standard lactation of 305 days, 542,000 in the extended lactation phase and 427,000 per mL in full lactation of 381 days. Somatic cell count in the milk produced during the extended lactation phase (from day 306 to the end of lactation) was significantly higher compared with the milk harvested during the 305-day lactation. The lowest average somatic cell score (SCS) per mL raw milk in the extension phase was determined in the milk of primiparous cows (3.83). The factors which significantly affected the somatic cell count in the milk of cows extending their standard lactation included parity (lactation) and average daily milk yields from day 306 until the end of lactation. The correlation coefficients calculated for the somatic cell score (SCS) in standard lactation and in extended lactation phase, within selected factors, indicate that there was a positive correlation for both the lactation groups (standard lactation and extension period) as well as lactation (parity) (rp = 0.23 and rp = 0.33; P<0.01). It was also demonstrated that somatic cell count was on the decrease with increasing daily milk performance during extended lactation (rp = -0.23; P<0.01).
Magdalena Humaj-Grysztar, Monika Bobek, Dorota Matuszyk and Marzena Put
Aim. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the mode of delivery and the course of lactation in primiparas in early postpartum period. Material and methods. The research was conducted amongst 200 primiparas including 100 after vaginal delivery and 100 after cesarean section. The study was conducted with the method of diagnostic survey with the author’s original questionnaire as a research tool. Results. The women after vaginal delivery initiate breastfeeding earlier and more often find it successful (p < 0.001). Almost all the primiparas after cesarean delivery formula-fed their newborns (p < 0.001) and they started supplementary formula feeding earlier in comparison to women who had vaginal delivery (p < 0.001). Problem-free breastfeeding was declared by 15% of the respondents after vaginal delivery and 4% of those who had a cesarean section. Conclusions. The mode of delivery influences the lactation process. The primiparas after cesarean delivery had problems with breastfeeding more often than those after vaginal birth.
Kostas A. Triantaphyllopoulos, Panagiota Koutsouli, Athanassios Kandris, Dimitris Papachristou, Kalliopi E. Markopoulou, Antonia Mataragka, Theofylaktos Massouras and Iosif Bizelis
The animal selection with favourable phenotypes of the past has been, currently, replaced by the genotype selection on quantitative traits, assisted by the expanding molecular techniques in the context of livestock improvement. In this study, the c.112T>C polymorphism in exon II of β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) gene was investigated in Karagouniko and Chios sheep breeds by using polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and possible associations with milk traits were examined. In total, 125 blood DNA samples were isolated for PCR-RFLP analysis and the respective 217 milk samples′ composition profile was obtained. The goodness of fit test to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) for β-LG genotypes was estimated and associations found between β-LG genotypes and raw milk composition. Two alleles and three genotypes were observed (AA, AB and BB) in both breeds, and Chios breed significantly deviated (P≤0.05) from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Conclusively, linear mixed model analysis on samples, from both breeds collectively, showed significant effects of β-LG genotype on lactose percentage and somatic cell count (SCC), lactation stage on daily milk yield and protein, while the breed effect was significant only on daily milk yield.