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Open access

Kamila Fialová

Abstract

This article explores the development of part-time employment in Central and Eastern Europe and compares it to Western Europe. On the macro level it examines the role of the business cycle and its effect on part-time employment in the two groups of countries since 2001. The key result reveals that contrary to the West, the business cycle development exerts a significant negative effect on the part-time employment rate in Eastern Europe. When the economy operates below its potential, part-time employment tends to grow more than full-time employment. This finding is consistent with the labour demand effect and reflects the pursuit of flexibility by firms as well as the adjustment in composition of employment to changing economic conditions. The countercyclical effect is even stronger for involuntary part-time employment. Separate analyses of individual demographic groups of workers reveal a significant negative effect of the business cycle on part-time employment of older workers and male prime-age workers in Eastern Europe. In contrast, the effect is insignificant for young workers and unclear for prime-age women.

Open access

Elżbieta Kryńska and Danuta Kopycińska

Abstract

Already classical economists took interest in the role of wages and wage formation mechanisms, as well as in their influence on other components of the labour market. This article aims to systematise contemporary approaches to wages as one of the labour market components that have been developed within major economic theories. The systemization will serve as a basis for identifying main interactions between wages and other labour market components, such as labour supply and demand and labour market disequilibrium. The article presents major concepts formulated within neo-classical and Keynesian theories, labour market segmentation theories, efficiency wage theory, rent-sharing and rent-extraction theories, theory of job search, and search-and-matching models. One of the conclusions arising from the discussion is that the evolution of contemporary labour markets is a challenge for researchers seeking wage formation models adequately describing the real-life circumstances.

Open access

Jana Tepperová and Hana Zídková

Abstract

Whether an individual can or cannot participate in the Czech public health insurance system depends on several characteristics, one of which is whether he/she has permanent residence status in the Czech Republic, and a second whether he/she is employed. This means that those without permanent residence status, including self-employed migrants from third countries, their dependent relatives, and the dependent relatives of third country employees in the Czech Republic, cannot participate in the public health insurance system. Some argue that such migrants should be included in the system, since commercial health insurance is disadvantageous and the contributions they would pay into the public health insurance system would increase the public health insurance agencies’ income. We estimate the value of the contributions to public health insurance that would be paid by third country self-employed and non-working immigrants, if they were insured based on data from 2011 to 2013, and compare this to the assumed costs of their medical care. To calculate the contributions for self-employed migrants we use data on the distribution of the tax base for self-employed persons from personal income tax returns. Our estimation results in an overall negative balance of 22 million CZK on the data for 2012 and 2013. In the current system this deficit would be covered by the state, which would pay contributions to the system for certain (state insured) persons amounting to 97 million CZK; overall therefore the inclusion of these immigrants would result in a positive balance of 75 million CZK.

Open access

Igor Jakubiak

Abstract

Immigration is one of the heavily discussed subjects in modern academic and political debate. In recent decades, fiscal effects of international migration remained the centre of interest. The goal of this paper is to review and synthesise the available literature, devoted to the relationship between immigration and welfare systems, in order to present the state of the art in this area and draw conclusions for further research. Despite extensive literature, it is difficult to find an unambiguous answer to the question, whether immigrants are a burden or an asset to the state with redistributive policies. Moreover, some of the assumptions and approaches widely used in presented articles appear too simplistic or even unfounded.

Open access

Vlasta Bahovec, Dajana Barbić and Irena Palić

Abstract

Background: A large body of empirical literature indicates that gender and financial literacy are significant determinants of individual financial performance.

Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to recognize the impact of the variable financial literacy and the variable gender on the variation of the financial performance using the regression analysis.

Methods/Approach: The survey was conducted using the systematically chosen random sample of Croatian financial consumers. The cross section linear regression model is estimated in order to assess how gender as a dummy variable and financial literacy as an ordinal categorical variable impact financial performance.

Results: The results indicate that the average value of financial performance for men is higher than the average value of financial performance for women at the same financial literacy level. Furthermore, a higher level of financially literacy is related to a higher level of financial performance.

Conclusions: Both gender and financial literacy have a statistically significant impact on individual financial performance. Increasing financial literacy and understanding gender differences in terms of financial literacy and financial well-being should be of interest to financial educators in their struggles to improve financial situation of citizens and for educators to create financial education programs intended for men and women.

Open access

Mariusz E. Sokołowicz and Ihor Lishchynskyy

Abstract

The question of migration within the European Union, as well as between its member and non-members states, has become recently an important issue. Among the EU and OECD countries, Poland is not a major recipient of immigrants. However, in recent years one can observe a growing number of both permanent and temporary immigrants, most of whom are Ukrainian citizens, whose main departure motive is work.

The main purpose of the paper is to conduct a comparison of the migration patterns for Poland and Ukraine, as well as survey the mutual causation forces that determine the structure of the Ukraine-Poland migration corridor.

The paper consists of three parts. It starts with an introduction followed, by theoretical backgrounds of migration, outlining its main types and models. The next parts highlight the volume, directions and structure of migration flows for Ukraine and Poland. The evolution of the Ukraine-Poland migration channel and its mutual effect on the economies of both countries is highlighted in the final part.

Open access

Olcay Çolak and Serap Palaz

Abstract

Occupational accidents are among the most important issues of the agenda of working life in Turkey recently. Recently the causes and consequences of occupational accidents which are related to human, occupational and environmental factors have received great attention from the researchers but it has been paid little attention to focused on economic factors. The purpose of this paper is to make a contribution to redressing this gap by examining the relationship between fatal occupational accidents and economic development over the period of 1980 to 2012 for Turkey. In this context, bounds testing approach which is also known as autoregressive distributed lag model is performed. The results indicate the existence of positive relationship between gross domestic product per capita and fatal occupational accidents in the short-run while in the long run this turns out to be in a negative way via economic growth and changes in structure of the economy.

Open access

Piotr Kopacz

Abstract

We generalize the Zermelo navigation on Riemannian manifolds (M; h), admitting a space dependence of a ship's speed 0 < |u(x)|h ≤ 1 in the presence of a perturbation W̃ determined by a strong (critical) velocity vector field satisfying |W̃ (x)|h = |u(x)|h, with application of Finsler metric of Kropina type.

Open access

Anna Jędrzychowska

Abstract

This article demonstrates the size of the budget gap that arises in a household after the death of that member who was the breadwinner of the family. It also describes how this gap can be covered by motor vehicle liability insurance. One source of funding for this gap could be, for example, an annuity for indirect victims. In many EU countries, people who are members of the household of the deceased are considered to be affected as a result of his death. Those indirectly affected will include the family members and relatives of the deceased (spouse, parent, child, sibling, and cohabitant). The person responsible for the death should pay compensation to the family members of the deceased. One of the elements determining this compensation should be the loss of income to the family of the deceased. The second element is compensation for the lost personal contribution. This paper presents the study of literature as an introduction to the relevant issues. The problem of compensation for lost income will be illustrated by legal regulations and calculations based on the account actuarial-term annuity. The study focuses on the selected EU countries. This article is part of a broader study by the author on the material consequences of personal injury and sources of their financing.

Open access

Milena Nikolić and Biljana Rakić

Abstract

Both in theory and practice, great attention is paid to the analysis of the pension expenditures level, their determinants, as well as the options for their reduction, whereas the analysis of the revenues level and contributions, as the most significant revenue in contribution-based pension systems, is often neglected. The aim of this paper is to analyse the determinants of the level of contributions for pension and disability insurance in order to identify options for increasing their levels in the pension system of the Republic of Serbia. By using the comparative method, a comparative analysis of data about the trends of the most significant determinants of contribution levels among the European Union Member States and Serbia is performed. Research results have shown that increase in the contribution level for pension and disability insurance in the Republic of Serbia can be achieved by extending the definition of contribution base of employees, increasing the average effective retirement age and increasing the effective population coverage by this insurance. In addition to pointing out the options for increasing the contribution level for pension and disability insurance, the authors also propose the measures which can be applied in order to affect the increase of the contribution level for this insurance and, therefore, the total revenues level of the pension system of the Republic of Serbia.