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Kamila Fialová

Abstract

This article explores the development of part-time employment in Central and Eastern Europe and compares it to Western Europe. On the macro level it examines the role of the business cycle and its effect on part-time employment in the two groups of countries since 2001. The key result reveals that contrary to the West, the business cycle development exerts a significant negative effect on the part-time employment rate in Eastern Europe. When the economy operates below its potential, part-time employment tends to grow more than full-time employment. This finding is consistent with the labour demand effect and reflects the pursuit of flexibility by firms as well as the adjustment in composition of employment to changing economic conditions. The countercyclical effect is even stronger for involuntary part-time employment. Separate analyses of individual demographic groups of workers reveal a significant negative effect of the business cycle on part-time employment of older workers and male prime-age workers in Eastern Europe. In contrast, the effect is insignificant for young workers and unclear for prime-age women.

Open access

Helen Eboh Cletus, Nor Asiah Mahmood, Abubakar Umar and Ahmed Doko Ibrahim

Abstract

Workplace diversity (WPD) is a holistic concept that denotes the differences that exist between people working within an organisation. It describes the complex physical, sociological or psychological attributes such as gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, religious or political beliefs that define an individual or group. Therefore, WPD transcends the recruitment, representation or preferential treatment of people within an organisation. The complexity of WPD has become one of the most challenging issues currently of critical importance in business and organisational management. Therefore, the paper presents the critical issues currently impacting on WPD in modern day organisations. It identified and highlighted the various prospects and challenges of WPD. The results revealed that diversity in the workplace enhances the critical thinking, problem-solving, and employee professional skills. Furthermore, it enables organisations to attract talent, improve corporate attractiveness, productivity. However, it is currently hampered by the hostility, disrespect and discrimination people with diverse background encounter in the workplace. Such behavioural attitudes as ascribed to prejudices and biases towards people with varied lifestyle choices, ethnic and cultural differences, disabilities, and generational gaps. These factors can stifle morale, teamwork, profitability and the attractiveness of the organisation. Consequently, modern day organisations need to address the causes of these issues to exploit the benefits of WPD. These can be addressed strategies that foster an empowerment culture, build communication and team spirit with organisations. These efforts will promote acceptance, productivity, and profits in future organisations.

Open access

Dalina Andrei and Liviu C. Andrei

Abstract

Interesting and challenging is not exactly that economic thinking is divided between those who admit that labour would be a good negotiated on its specific market segment and those who don’t, but other two-three aspects. The one is that those who do admit it are classic, neoclassic and (interestingly!) Marxian schools. The last thinkers certainly see it as pejorative. Interesting is equally that those who ‘reject labour market concept’ work around the Keynesian thinking school. The author of ‘General Theory…’ rejected the idea that employer and employee could ever be economically equal to each other and that labour could keep any real market supply specific behaviour. Thirdly, Keynes was the first one who pointed to unemployment as a real modern problem, but also interestingly his view on the same unemployment wasn’t satisfactory for our present.

At present, unemployment is a problem and even an unsolved one for the European economy and for the EU Organization. The EU documents might indicate it as a problem (and not only economic) and a policy priority, together with the wages issue, but basically employment and wages cannot make any policy priority against economic targets like productivity, cost reduction and industrial efficiency.

Open access

Taieb Ouni, Sami Baraket and Moufida Khtaifi

Abstract

Let Ω be a bounded domain in with smooth boundary, and let 𝓧1; 𝓧2; · · ·, 𝓧m be points in Ω. We are concerned with the singular stationary non-homogenous q-Kuramoto-Sivashinsky eaquation (q-KSE:

where we use some nonlinear domain decomposition method to give a suficient condition to have a positive weak solution u in Ω under the physical Dirichlet-like boundary conditions , which is singular at each 𝓧i as the parameters λ, ϒ and ρ tend to 0 and where q ∈ [1, 4] is a real number.

Open access

Noureddine Zeddini and Adel Ben Dkhil

Abstract

In this paper, we study the existence of positive solutions of the Dirichlet problem -Δu = λ p(x)f(u; v) ; -Δv = λ q(x)g(u; v); in D, and u = v = 0 on ∂D, where D ⊂ Rn (n ≥ 3) is an C1,1-domain with compact boundary and λ > 0. The potential functions p; q are not necessarily bounded, may change sign and the functions f; g : ℝ2 → ℝ are continuous with f(0; 0) > 0, g(0; 0) > 0. By applying the Leray- Schauder fixed point theorem, we establish the existence of positive solutions for λ sufficiently small.

Open access

Fayssal Benkhaldoun, Mohammed Seaid and Amadou Mahamane

Abstract

The major emphasis of this work is the derivation of a posteriori error estimates for the mixed finite volume discretization of second-order elliptic equations. The estimates are established for meshes consisting of simplices on unstructured grids. We consider diffusion problems with nonhomogeneous diffusion coefficients. The error estimates are of residual types and are formulated in the energy semi-norm for a locally postprocessed approximate solutions. The estimates are fully computable and locally efficient that they can serve as indicators for adaptive refinement and for the actual control of the error. Numerical results are shown for two test examples in two space dimensions. It is found that the proposed adaptive mixed finite volume method offers a robust and accurate approach for solving second-order elliptic equations, even when highly nonhomogeneous diffusion coefficients are used in the simulations.

Open access

Michel Ledoux

Abstract

In a recent work, E. Cinti and F. Otto established some new interpolation inequalities in the study of pattern formation, bounding the Lr(μ)-norm of a probability density with respect to the reference measure μ by its Sobolev norm and the Kantorovich-Wasserstein distance to μ. This article emphasizes this family of interpolation inequalities, called Sobolev-Kantorovich inequalities, which may be established in the rather large setting of non-negatively curved (weighted) Riemannian manifolds by means of heat flows and Harnack inequalities.