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Open access

Matúš Péči and Pavel Važan

Abstract

The paper examines systems integration and its main levels at higher levels of control. At present, the systems integration is one of the main aspects participating in the consolidation processes and financial flows of a company. Systems Integration is a complicated emotionconsuming process and it is often a problem to choose the right approach and level of integration. The research focused on four levels of integration, while each of them is characterized by specific conditions. At each level, there is a summary of recommendations and practical experience. The paper also discusses systems integration between the information and MES levels. The main part includes user-level integration where we describe an example of such integration. Finally, we list recommendations and also possible predictions of the systems integration as one of the important factors in the future.

Open access

Meysam Maleki and Virgilio Cruz-Machado

Abstract

The purpose of this research is to review a sample of literature in the area of supply chain integration. Considering the extensive amount of literature on supply chain integration, it appears that it is still in its infancy. This study reviews a sample of 152 articles and in doing so throw light on different aspects of supply chain integration namely: vertical integration, functional integration, integration models .It discusses and criticizes the current state of literature on this context so that future researches find directions to contribute to missing points and remove obstacles. The scope of this review is limited to a cross-section of the literature in this area. As such, it cannot, and does not, attempt to be an examination of the full range of the literature, but a sampling of important and influential works.

Open access

Hanwei Li and Pirkko Pitkänen

Abstract

This study examines the integration experiences of mainland Chinese tertiarylevel students in Finland, a non-Anglophone country. The article identifies four conceptual domains of integration – academic, social, economic and cultural – as central to the students’ integration processes. Data for analysing the Chinese students’ integration experiences were collected through semi-structured interviews (n = 30), and the research findings showed that both English and the host language Finnish mediated the Chinese students’ integration into the host academic and social environments. Although the students initially faced challenges in their studies and daily lives, many of them managed to establish meaningful cross-cultural social contact and overcame cultural differences and language barriers to integrate into the new academic environment. The findings suggest that the maintenance of transnational ties and co-national networks can facilitate Chinese international student integration abroad, through promotion of meaningful cross-cultural contacts that contribute to the host society.

Open access

Alina Petronela Alexoaei and Raluca Georgiana Robu

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to provide a consistent literature review on the importance of structural convergence for the countries within the same economic area focusing on two main topics: the structural similarity problem of countries within an integration area and the evolution and development of the union itself (in line with Chenery and Singer’s approach). We aim to synthesize the most referential findings of the literature and project them on the most recent events in the European Union pointing out the relevance of structural convergence and of the continuation of the process under a reassessed form. The relevance of studying the structural convergence process lies in the medium and long term implications related to the synchronization of business cycles, long-run development patterns and of the dynamics of specialization. Moreover, the topic is of high interest both in the context of the future evolution of the European Union and in the decision making process of adopting the Euro in Romania’s case. On the side of theoretical papers, there is a rich literature on structural change that generally recommends that economic structures and the differences between them should be the starting point for analysis and development of theories of economic development. We believe that the preoccupations for this topic should be recalled in the context of the European events and new facets should be explored. Along with the views expressed in the European Commission White Paper, that the form will follow the function, we emphasize the importance of designing the proper institutions at European Union and Eurozone level, but also at national level with taking into consideration the goal of advancing towards structural convergence.

Open access

Barbara Jaczewska

Abstract

Awareness that immigrant integration takes place at a local level has been growing for several years. Immigration policy debates and decisions mostly occur at the national level, but the question of how to implement immigrant integration policy is much more urgent at a local level. The purpose of the article is to present the multidimensionality of integration actions as well as examples of projects considered to be “best practices” that are carried out today at the local level in German and UK cities of different sizes. The countries chosen have long histories of immigration and have developed significantly different approaches to immigration issues, nevertheless local experiences (in both countries) highlight not only differences but also similarities in immigrant integration policy. The surveys presented help us to understand that immigrant integration is a complicated process that can be stimulated in various ways, and that there is no single way to introduce policy towards immigrants.

Open access

Ahmet Naci Çoklar and Işıl Kabakçı Yurdakul

Abstract

Teachers are important providers of educational sustainability. Teachers’ ability to adapt themselves to rapidly developing technologies applicable to learning environments is connected with technology integration. The purpose of this study is to investigate teachers’ technology integration experiences in the course of learning and teaching processes. In doing so, qualitative research methods have been applied. The participants of the study were four teachers of different subject fields who work at a public secondary school in 2015–2016 school years and regard themselves as competent in technology integration. The study results indicated that the teachers took a teacher-centered stand in technology integration and the teachers’ most prominent reasons to start technology integration were the search for quality in education. Also the teachers, as IT school teachers, reported receiving support from close friends, the Ministry of National Education (MoNE), and online resources. The problems that the teachers faced in the processes of technology integration were mostly related to issues connected with the access to technology and technology proficiency.

Open access

Tomasz Kubin

Abstract

Initially, before the entry into force of the Maastricht Treaty, differences in integration between members of the European Communities (EC; later the European Union) were relatively few and usually temporary in nature. The Schengen Agreement, the Maastricht Treaty and the Treaty of Amsterdam, and the possibility of establishing enhanced cooperation meant that the problem was becoming more and more important in the functioning of the EU—both in theory and in practice.

The objective of the paper is to show that for several years, along with the stagnation in the deepening of integration between all the EU Member States, differentiation of integration in the EU is progressing very rapidly. The progressing differentiation in the EU is a consequence of mainly two processes: the development of enhanced cooperation and reforms in the eurozone, which are strengthened by the widening of the EU.

The article covers the issue of the categorization of differentiation of European Union integration, which constitutes the theoretical framework for further considerations. Specified processes which contribute to increasing the differentiation of the EU are discussed, showing the development of enhanced cooperation in the EU and presenting the reforms of the eurozone. The article concludes with the identification and the consequences of differentiated integration, both those that have already occurred and those that may occur in the future.

Open access

Benon Gaziński

Abstract

The article is a synthetic outlook at Konrad Adenauer’s life, activity and the legacy of that politician, described in a tendentious way in the past period, and nowadays – after a temporary increase in the interest during the first years of systemic transformation – deserving a closer examination. In the initial part of the article, some integration concepts of past centuries have been outlined. Then, in a biographical sketch, Adenauer’s private and public activities were characterized, falling into diverse political periods, ranging from imperial Germany, to the post-war formation of the foundations of a reborn democratic state. His participation in these events is outlined. The main achievements of Adenauer during almost 30 years of work in the Cologne municipality are pointed out and the repressions he suffered during the Nazi regime and his participation in the post-war reconstruction of Germany were discussed: long-term leadership in the CDU and the 14-year period of government as the first chancellor of democratic post-war Germany. It was pointed out that the political line he designated, the active presence of Germany in the uniting Europe, proved to be very stable and continued by his successive successors.

Open access

Michał Tomczyk

Abstract

This article examines, in a comparative perspective, the integration policy of the two, in many respects, very similar, neutral states, with particular emphasis on the period after the signing of the Single European Act. Despite the converging political and economic objectives, the decisions of both countries were determined by different economic and political conditions. For Austria, the integration processes were perceived as an important step, towards reconstruction of the economy, the abolition of trade barriers with the most important economic partner. In political terms integration – enhanced Austria’s position within European Community. Unlike the Austrian Government, the authorities in Bern have acted under much more polarized conditions. Neutrality played still very important role in its international policies and the social fears connected mostly to the loss of political and economic independence were vivid. The Swiss authorities were thus forced to choose the bilateral path, which was not preferred by EU countries, but more socially acceptable, and therefore easier to implement.

Open access

A. Torresin, C. Carbonini, M. Ferrari, D. Asnaghi and M. Botturi

Planning and verification in radiotherapy: our experience in a filmless hospital

In our hospital we have recently installed a new radiotherapy treatment planning and verification system. Our system allows to follow the normal clinical workflow: from patient identification to follow-up through the treatment delivery with the study of the best irradiation geometry. We designed a new technical solutions relating to the use of four linear accelerators, a Record and Verify system, a Treatment Planning System (TPS) and a clinical folder, completely paperless. All the procedures for treatment planning, setup and verification are integrated in our digital imaging long-term archive. The integration is based on the existing HL7 and DICOM standard protocols described in the International Committee and IHE RO Technical Framework, which is able to support the workflow. All the images used for planning and setup are stored in the Oncentra DICOM archive server for short-term archiving and then are sent to the Agfa DICOM long-term archive for legal and scientific purposes.