Z. Pánti, R. Ene, M. Nica, M. Popa, M. Pleniceanu, M. Cîrstoiu and C. Cîrstoiu
In the last decades, immunohistochemistry (IHC) has shown an important role in tumor differential diagnosis and has proven its prognostic role. Due to the various histological subtypes of primary malignant bone tumors, its role will be more important in the future. Based on recent studies, tumor growth, cell mobility, and metastases strongly correlate to the survival of these patients. An increased number of specific IHC markers have been used to determine the aggressiveness of the metastatic capacity of these tumors in enhancing early specific oncological therapies. This study presents 15 cases of primary malignant bone tumors, over a period of 4 years (2014-2018), from the Orthopedics and Traumatology Department of the University Emergency Hospital in Bucharest, where we evaluated the proliferation index using Ki67 IHC marker, tissue remodelation, the presence of necrosis in osteosarcoma cases in which chemotherapy was applied, and the aspect of the cytoskeleton with vimentin. Besides the histological aspect, we evaluated the tumor site, invasion and extension to the surrounding tissues (Computer Tomography, Magnetic Resonance) and vascularization with angiography, all these properties having an important prognostic role. Our findings were similar to other research papers in literature; showing that a fast growing and high proliferation index with increased cell mobility has a worse prognosis. Pulmonary metastases occurred in a relative short time in high-grade osteosarcomas, despite the chemotherapy, and multiple metastases were present at 6 months in a dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma case, in which the high-grade sarcoma was an osteosarcoma. Based on the literature, we also think that some specific markers might have multiple roles regarding the tumor growth local invasion and metastasis.
Jose Raduan Jaber, Alicia S Velázquez-Wallraf, David Farray, Antonio G. Ravelo-García, Conrado Carrascosa, Myriam Rodríguez-Ventura and Jose Perez
The aim of this study was to describe the gross, histopathological and immunohistochemical features of non-specific reactive hepatitis (NSRH) in stray dogs. To perform this study the livers of 23 dogs of different breed and sex were used. The tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin–eosin, and immunohistochemically. The results of this work showed that NSRH was characterized by the infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells scattered throughout the liver parenchyma and in the portal stroma, and associated with inflammatory and non-inflammatory diseases in other organ systems. The inflammatory infiltrate of NSRH was composed of CD3+ T lymphocytes and HLA-DR+ lymphocytes, as well as IgG+ plasma cells and alpha-1-antitrypsin+ macrophages in the portal spaces and hepatic sinusoids.
Introduction: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling plays an important role in various cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to evaluate immunoexpression of EGFR in HCC and surrounding non-tumor liver tissue and to correlate it to multiple clinicopathologic data.
Material and Methods: We analyzed 60 patients with HCC for multiple clinicopathologic characteristics and survival.
Presence of the immunosignal and the percentage of positive tumor cells at the whole tumor tissue sample and adjacent cirrhotic liver tissue were semi-quantitatively determined.
Results: Nineteen patients (31.67%) were female and 41 (68.33%) were male ranging in age from 31 to 85 years, median 61.88±10.51.
Mean survival time for female patients was 8.86±1.76 months, for male 13.03±1.50 months and overall survival was 11.6051±1.19 months.
The most patients had: T2 status (41.67%), no enlarged lymph nodes (90%), vascular invasion (63.33%) and well differentiated (43.33%) tumors.
EGFR immunoexpression was determined in range from 0% to 100% in both tumor and non-tumor tissue with mean value of 39.58% in tumor and 86.86% in cirrhotic tissue (p<0.00).
Higher percent of tumor EGFR positive cells were found in cases with higher T status, higher levels of AFP and poorly differentiated carcinoma, but not significantly.
Lower percent of tumor EGFR positive cells were found in patients with vascular invasion and enlarged lymph nodes, but also not significantly.
EGFR expression in tumor tissue significantly influenced survival of the patients (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The study showed that expression of EGFR in lower percentage of tumor cells was associated to favorable prognosis, making it a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target.
Dragutin Roksandić, Anita Radovanović, Jelena Danilović Luković, Danica Marković, Milica Kovačević Filipović and Miodrag Čolić
The purpose of this work was to investigate the influence of hypothyroidism on spleen tissue morphology and immune cell density in fourteen-day-old juvenile rats. Hypothyroidism in pups (n=10) was induced by administration of propylthiouracil (PTU) in drinking water (1.5 mg/L) to their mothers during pregnancy and period of lactation. Fourteen-day-old pups were sacrificed and the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) serum concentration and thyroid activation index (Ia) were determined. Increased serum level of TSH and increased Ia showed that pups from PTU treated mothers were hypothyroid. White and red spleen pulp, marginal zone and connective tissue volume density has been assessed by using the stereological method. Using immunohistochemistry, the present CD3+ T lymphocytes, CD45RA+ B lymphocytes and CD68+ macrophages were quantified. A significant reduction of volume density of the periarteriolar lymphocyte sheath (VvPALS) and lymphatic follicles (Vvf) due to depletion of T and B lymphocytes respectively, was observed in the spleens of hypothyroid pups compared to controls. The volume density of the red pulp (Vvrp), marginal zone (Vvmz) and connective tissue (Vvct) was increased, as well as the number of CD68+ macrophages in the spleens of hypothyroid pups compared to controls. These results indicate that thyroid hormones might be important for normal development of both, specific and innate immune cells in the spleen during prenatal and early postnatal period.
Edith Dee, Andrada Loghin, Tamas Toth, Adrian Năznean and Angela Borda
Introduction: Glomus tumors are rare benign mesenchymal neoplasms accounting for only 2% of all types of soft tissue tumors. Commonly located in the peripheral soft tissues, they are most frequently encountered in the subungual areas of fingers and toes, and very rarely in visceral organs due to the absence of glomus bodies. To date, 22 cases of primary renal glomus tumors have been described in the literature, of which 17 benign, with no evidence of recurrence or metastasis, three cases of malignant glomus tumor, and two cases with uncertain malignant potential. Case report: We report the 18th case of a benign glomus tumor of the kidney in a 49-year-old female patient, presenting the microscopic appearance (round, uniform cells with indistinct borders, scant finely granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, round nuclei lacking prominent nucleoli, arranged in solid sheets, accompanied by slit-like vascular spaces), the immunohistochemical profile (tumor cells showed immunoreactivity for smooth muscle actin, vimentin, as well as for CD34; they were negative for AE1/AE3, desmin, HMB-45, S-100 protein, renin, and chromogranin), and the differential diagnosis of this rare entity (juxtaglomerular tumor, angiomyolipoma, hemangioma, epithelioid leyomioma, solitary fibrous tumor, carcinoid tumor, and paraganglioma). Conclusion: Primary renal glomus tumors are rare tumors that radiologically can mimic other mesenchymal renal neoplasm. Accurate diagnosis is based on the microscopic appearance and especially the characteristic immunophenotype.
Background: Only a few cases of Leiomyomatoid angiomatous neuroendocrine tumor (LANT) have been reported in the literature. Our case adds clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical features.
Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of LANT.
Material and Method: One case of LANT of the myometrium was reported in a review of literature. The morphological and immunohistochemical features were analyzed.
Results: In the course of an annual health examination of a 40-year-old woman, ultrasound results revealed a mass in the myometrium, which was clinically diagnosed as uterine leiomyoma. The patient underwent hysterectomy. Histological examination demonstrated that the tumor was composed of prominent vasculature and cellular stromal around vessels. Mitotic activity was absent. Both vascular and stromal cells showed diffusely expressed CD56 and chromogranin A. Stromal cells also expressed actin, SMA, and desmin, but not CK or HMB45. The pathological diagnosis was LANT of the myometrium. Follow up reported no evidence of recurrence three months after surgery.
Conclusion: LANT is a possible new disease entity. LANT is a dimorphic tumor consisting of smooth muscle and neurosecretory phenotype cells surrounding intratumoral vessels. Surgery may be the best treatment, resulting in good prognosis.
I. Hodorova, J. Mihalik, J. Vecanova, M. Dankova and S. Rybarova
Renal Ontogeny of P-Glycoprotein/MDR1 in Rat
BACKGROUND: P-glycoprotein (Pgp/MDR1) is an ATP-dependent, integral plasma-membrane efflux pump that is constitutively expressed on adult apical brush-border epithelium of renal proximal tubules. This Pgp/MDR1 tissue distribution and localization affects the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of Pgp/MDR1 substrates. The ontogeny of rat Pgp/MDR1 is still doubtful, and such knowledge may be helpful in understanding age-related pharmacokinetics. The purpose of this study was to determine, whether Pgp/MDR1 expression is altered during development.
METHODS: Postnatal expression of Pgp was determined using immunohistochemical method. Tissue from Wistar rat were isolated on the 1st day (D1), 7th day (D7), 14th day (D14), 21st day of life (D21) and from adult animals (60 days old; Ad).
RESULTS: Our ontogeny study illustrated that expression of Pgp was relatively constant from birth to adulthood.
CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of the ontogeny of transport proteins involved in distribution and elimination of drugs is important for adequate interpretation of the results of toxicity studies in juvenile animals.
Ozlem Ozmen, Ozlem Sirin Sengoz, Harun Çinar and Hüseyin Dolu
This report describes a case of a retrobulbar fibrosarcoma in a 4-year-old female sheep. A big tumor was protruding from the orbit but not invading the surrounding tissue and was easily removed surgically. The grayish colored mass was 19×13×8 cm in size and hard. The surface of the tumor was irregular and ulcerated. Marked hemorrhage and necrotic areas were present across the whitish cut surface. Histopathologically, the mass was composed of spindle shaped, anaplastic pleomorphic cells. Masson’s trichrome staining revealed a collagenous matrix in the tissue. Immunohistochemically, the mass was positive for vimentin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen but negative for smooth muscle actin, desmin, glial fibrilar acidic protein and S100 protein antibodies. According to histopathological and immunohistochemical findings the tumor was diagnosed as fibrosarcoma. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of ocular fibrosarcoma in a sheep.
The elastic fibres are particularly important for the structural integrity and function of the prostate. In this study, the elastic fibres of the normal dog prostate gland were identified by immunohistochemistry. In the capsule, the elastic fibres form membranes of different thicknesses-located mainly in the intermediate and deep zones. Large trabeculae which extend from the capsule contain elastic fibres with a prevalence in the longitudinal direction. Around blood vessels, the elastic fibres are concentrated and form annular structures. In the fine septa supporting the lobules, elastic fibres form a fine elastic meshwork. Between the secretory units of the prostate gland, the fine elastic fibres are located under the secretory epithelium. An increase of elastic fibres around the ducts entering the urethra was observed. An accumulation of elastic fibres in the capsule and stromal septa may participate in the releasing of secretory products during ejaculation.
Maja Sazdanovic, Slobodanka Mitrovic, Milos Todorovic, Maja Vulovic, Dejan Jeremic, Zoran Milosavljevic, Predrag Sazdanovic and Neda Ognjanovic
The nucleus accumbens is a part of the ventral striatum along with the caudate nucleus and putamen. The role of the human nucleus accumbens in drug addiction and other psychiatric disorders is of great importance. The aim of this study was to characterize medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens according to the immunohistochemical expression of GAD67.
This study was conducted on twenty human brains of both sexes between the ages of 20 and 75. The expression of GAD67 was assessed immunohistochemically, and the characterization of the neurons was based on the shape and size of the soma and the number of impregnated primary dendrites.
We showed that neurons of the human nucleus accumbens expressed GAD67 in the neuron soma and in the primary dendrites. An analysis of the cell body morphology revealed the following four different types of neurons: fusiform neurons, fusiform neurons with lateral dendrites, pyramidal neurons and multipolar neurons.
An immunohistochemical analysis showed a strong GAD67 expression in GABAergic medium spiny neurons, which could be classifi ed into four different types, and these neurons morphologically correlated with those described by the Golgi study.