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Open access

György Molnár, Zoltán Szűts and Katalin Nagy

Abstract

In social context, a stranger can be identified as one who is excluded from a group. This group can sometimes have only a few members, while in other cases it can consist of a whole nation or of an entire society. From a digital perspective, there are two kinds of citizens: first, those who are members of the digital information society. They are able to take part in social and public communication on several levels. Their habits often make life easier, and the pace they live their lives at is faster than of those before them. They are the digital natives. Second, there are those who designed the digital world, but ironically they are the ones who do not really understand how it works in practice. They are the digital immigrants, the strangers. In our study, our key point is that digital immigrants, who have been in this world longer than the so-called digital natives, are perceived as strangers as they are in many ways excluded from today’s digital information society. The rituals of their daily interaction, routine, and media consumption as well as information gathering differ from those who are “full members” of the information society.

Open access

Gabriela Chefneux

Abstract

One of the major functions newspapers have is that of (re)presenting reality for their readers and thus explain events and promote specific values; newspapers are multimodal texts, which resort both to language and images to convey their message. The paper analyses a British and a North American newspaper article and has two aims. Firstly, to investigate the strategies used by journalists to represent immigrants in a positive way and, secondly, to draw a comparative analysis between the articles in terms of these strategies. The theoretical part defines the concept of racism and the ways in which it is nowadays expressed and lists some of the strategies that are frequently used to present immigrants (such as topic, referential strategies, intensifying, extensivization, victimization, personalization, voices heard, argumentation, etc.) with the use of pictures. The second part identifies strategies used in these two articles. The conclusions present a comparison between them in terms of similarities (values upheld, type of argumentation) and differences (intensification and nomination strategies, quotation patterns).

Open access

George Karlis, Aida Stratas, Marianna Locke, François Gravelle and Genie Arora

Abstract

Health care and leisure services, although different, are similar from the perspective that both focus on enhancing quality of life by improving health and wellbeing. Although both of these services are vitally important, some groups such as aged immigrants face a number of barriers that may limit their access to these services. This paper examines and discusses two related areas of the service sector – health care and leisure – and the growing concern to address the needs of Canada’s aging population, specifically, aged immigrants. The paper concludes with the following five suggestions for health care and leisure service providers to alleviate barriers faced by Canada’s ethnic aged: 1) Recognize that health care and leisure are closely related, 2) Understand the changing nature of society including trends in immigration, 3) Get to know society’s diversity of aged immigrants, 4) Evaluate current services provided, and 5) Establish future goals and directions.

Open access

Aadne Aasland and Guri Tyldum

Abstract

This article examines working conditions, careers and aspirations among immigrants working in the hotel industry in the Greater Oslo region. Using theories of labour market segregation and segmentation, and drawing on survey data of hotel workers, we show how migrants from various backgrounds are distributed into different jobs and have different work experiences in the hotel sector. Correspondence analysis shows how hotel workers are distributed along two major dimensions: quality of working conditions and time dimension of their current job. Migrants’ geographic background emerges as closely linked to their clustering patterns along these two dimensions, with very diverse implications for job opportunities and risks.

Open access

Integrating in Homeownerland

The Norwegian housing regime and why it matters for immigrants’ social inclusion

Anne Skevik Grødem and Inger Lise Skog Hansen

Abstract

The Norwegian housing model stands out internationally with its emphasis on home ownership. Immigrants, however, disproportionally live in rented housing. The rental market is poorly regulated, and renters often encounter poor housing standards, deprived neighbourhoods, and discrimination. Focusing on families with children, we use quantitative data to establish that housing and neighbourhood problems accumulate. We then draw on qualitative interviews to illuminate how such problems impact on family life. Our data indicate that the Norwegian housing model works well for a majority of immigrants, while a minority faces severe obstacles. We argue that poor and/or unstable housing represents challenges for family life, and also for immigrants’ capacities to build social networks beyond the family. We further suggest that the arbitrary and potentially discriminatory selection processes in the rental market undermines the development of generalised trust.

Open access

Christina von Post, Patrik Wikström, Helge Räihä and Vilmantė Liubinienė

Summary

Issues in minority education in relation to citizenship have received more attention lately, because of new requirements for language testing in several countries (Bevelander, Fernandez & Hellström, 2011, p. 101). The acquisition of citizenship is more decisive for immigrant participation in society than the duration of stay in the country (Bevelander, Fernandez & Hellström, 2011). The second language is crucial for active citizenship and integration in this perspective. Most countries in the EU (except Ireland and Sweden) have language requirements for citizenship and the use of language testing becomes increasingly common among the countries that receive migrants. The rapid development highlights the need for new international studies on the relationship between citizenship and conditions for second language learning. The goal of the recent study is to compare premises, perspectives and scales of values of Danish, Norwegian and Swedish language educators, related to the requirements for immigrant citizenship. Previous studies (Björklund & Liubiniené, 2004) indicate that there are major differences in value systems even between the neighbouring countries. To reach the objective of the present study, interviews were conducted with language educators in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The results have revealed two opposing patterns. The values of Swedish informants show a wide-ranging variation, while the Danish and Norwegian data on values are consistently similar. The results raise further questions about the effects caused by differences in values among language educators when comparing the countries and call for a further verification of the data in a more extended study, including Lithuania and other Baltic states.

Open access

Barbara Jaczewska

Abstract

Awareness that immigrant integration takes place at a local level has been growing for several years. Immigration policy debates and decisions mostly occur at the national level, but the question of how to implement immigrant integration policy is much more urgent at a local level. The purpose of the article is to present the multidimensionality of integration actions as well as examples of projects considered to be “best practices” that are carried out today at the local level in German and UK cities of different sizes. The countries chosen have long histories of immigration and have developed significantly different approaches to immigration issues, nevertheless local experiences (in both countries) highlight not only differences but also similarities in immigrant integration policy. The surveys presented help us to understand that immigrant integration is a complicated process that can be stimulated in various ways, and that there is no single way to introduce policy towards immigrants.

Open access

Encarnación Soriano-Ayala and Verónica C. Cala

Abstract

Introduction: Globalization has favored intra-European Commission (EC) and extra-EC migration to Spain. One of the most numerous cultural groups that have settled in the southern Spain is from Romania. Coexistence, especially in schools, has made us become interested in knowing the eating habits at breakfast of Romanian and Spanish populations. Numerous studies show that the food intake at breakfast, mostly made before leaving home, has an incidence on the physic wellbeing of adolescent throughout the day. The processes of acculturation are also inseparable from the eating habits, health and life, that maintain the migrant teenagers. Breakfast is analyzed as one of the habits more associated with diet quality; paradoxically, one of the findings of our study, many adolescents do not take a proper breakfast every day.

Objectives: The study analyzes the characteristics and the main cultural and gender differences in the implementation of breakfast: its maintenance or omission in young autochthonous and immigrants of Romanian origin in the southeast Spanish schools. Design. This is a cross-sectional study with a cluster sampling in two Primary schools and seven Secondary schools. The instrument applied was an adaptation of the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire. Sample. It has been formed by 1472 students between 11 and 18 years old; nationality: 1315 were Spanish and 157 were Romanians. Data analysis. Descriptive and differential analyses using the chi-square and U of Mann-Whitney statistics.

Results: In the study we identified 1.2% of Spaniards and 3.3% of Romanians who either skip breakfast or do not eat foods throughout the morning. The main breakfast foods of the Spanish students are dairy, bread and cereals, cookies, juice and olive oil; for the Romanian students the basic foods at breakfast are cereals, dairy products, juices, biscuits and jams. We have found significant differences between the two compared cultural groups. We also found significant differences between the food eaten by men of the two cultural groups (Spanish and Romanian) and by the food eaten by women (Spanish and Romanian) in the breakfast food.

Conclusions: The results show the need to further promote and implement educational programs that encourage students to make breakfast before leaving home. Also, it is necessary, they take care of the intake of the right foods to start the day and contemplate this habit from a transcultural and gender approach. Significant differences were identified in the breakfast practice food by both genders and cultural groups.

Open access

Sonja Arndt

Abstract

Immersed in the bicultural, increasingly globalized, yet uniquely local, Aotearoa New Zealand early childhood landscape, immigrant teacher subjects are shaped in complicated, entangled ways. This paper attempts to open fresh spaces for re-thinking knowable teacher identities by drawing on Julia Kristeva’s work on the foreigner and the subject-in-process. It explores the immigrant teacher subject as “infinitely in construction, de-constructible, open and evolving” (Kristeva, 2008, p. 2). In a sector that is grappling with the complexities of outcomes driven expectations of productivity, mass participation and often homogenized indicators of ‘quality’, this paper elevates insights into the subject formation of the Other, to expose cracks in this veneer, through the notions of the semiotic and revolt. In this critical philosophical examination, I reconceptualise the idea of knowing immigrant teacher subjects, and their confrontation and (re)negotiation of social, political and professional expectations and unknowable foreignness.

Open access

Robert Majkut, Jacek Pluta and Radosław Rybczyński

Summary

A noticeably increased intensity of migration becomes a very important issue with regard to economic, socio-cultural and political matters. Broader flow of people results in the occurrence of numerous threats, but also provides opportunities and benefits for both the participants of migration flows, and the areas to which the flow is directed. An important role in this process is played by the students, who con stitute a special category of immigrants. The article contains a socio-economic characteristics of foreign students from countries of the former CIS, with the emphasis on their reasons for immigration, organizing their new life abroad, life plans and in particular their economic activity. The core purpose of the article is to identify the mechanisms of adaptation of foreign students as a specific category of immigrants to functioning in the new socioeconomic environment. The article, in addition to its cognitive merit, also has a practical purpose. The problems and obstacles faced by foreign students in Poland form a basis for general recommendations for actions aimed at improving the conditions of functioning of foreign students in the new realities.