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Russian-Speaking Immigrant Teachers in Finnish Classrooms:

Views and lived experiences in Finnish education

Anatoly Stikhin and Tatjana Rynkänen

Abstract

Success of integration depends, amongst other things, on immigrants’ involvement in the host country’s education. Educational differences between home and host countries can either promote or hinder academic progress of immigrants and, consequently, overall process of their integration. The goal of this study is to investigate what effect differences between educational systems of Finland and neighbouring Russia may have on professional induction of Russian-speaking immigrant teachers in Finland. This is done through researching experiences of Russian-speaking teachers in Finnish education. Their views and interpretations of their own eligibility and Finnish schooling practices lay foundation of this research.

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Lived Experiences of Changing Integration Policies:

Immigrant Narratives of Institutional Support and Labour Market Inclusion/Exclusion in Sweden

Lotta Brännström, Katarina Giritli-Nygren, Gustav Lidén and Jon Nyhlén

Abstract

This study aims to map, locate and make visible the everyday experiences of newly arrived immigrants in government-sponsored integration activities and to trace how these experiences are linked to changes in policy. The study pays particular attention to the dynamic nature of integration and draws links between personal, organisational and policy domains while analysing shifting integration policies from the standpoint of immigrants. Swedish integration policy has undergone vast changes during recent years as the government implements one of the largest changes in Swedish history, beginning in 2010. With this came an emphasis on employment and workfare over welfare. Consequently, the rhetoric of integration in Sweden also changed from what in municipalities was called an introduction to a sense of establishment. By examining the subjective views of immigrants, we discuss the lived experiences of individuals who are subjected to and employed in different occupations due to various integration regimes.

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Jarmila Rajas

Assemblage of Pastoral Power and Sameness

The political discussions around immigrant integration in Finland have specifically problematised the integration of immigrant women. This article uses a Foucaultian framework of governmentality to analyse these problematisations. By exploring the way that state feminist rationalities are used to measure the integration of immigrant women through specific definitions of gender equality, the article shows how integration technologies are envisioned as a means of bringing about gender equality for immigrant women and how these technologies use modes of pastoral power reflecting a liberal desire to govern at a distance. The article also addresses the power/knowledge constellation that omits knowledge about other intersectionalities.

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Tineke Fokkema, Laurence Lessard-Phillips, James Bachmeier and Susan Brown

The Link Between the Transnational Behaviour and Integration of the Second Generation in European and American Cities

This article investigates the transnational behaviour of the children of immigrants - the second generation - in 11 European and two U.S. cities. We find evidence that transnational practices such as visits to the home country, remittances and use of ethnic media persist only among a minority of the second generation. At a personal level, these second-generation transmigrants are less socio-culturally integrated but more economically integrated in the host country. They also tend to live in those cities and countries with policies that are more assimilationist or exclusionary than multicultural.

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Immigration Control in Disguise?

Civic Integration Policies and Immigrant Admission

Anton Ahlén and Frida Boräng

Abstract

There has been a rapid diffusion of civic integration policies (CIPs) in Europe since the 21st century. The spread of CIPs has, however, been uneven across Europe, with some countries adopting civic integration strategies with tougher integration requirements, whereas others keeping more of a multicultural approach. The implementation of CIPs has mainly been motivated based on concerns about immigrant integration. As discussed in this article, however, an implied function of this policy framework is that immigrants who do not meet the conditions will face difficulties acquiring residence. This article develops and conducts a preliminary test of the argument that CIPs affect migration flows. The assumption is that CIPs provide states with tools to control and limit the inflow of immigration by a certain category of entry. The analysis lends support to the idea that there are connections between the extensions of CIPs and reductions in family immigration and labour immigration among European countries, which indicates that push for internal inclusion seems to come along with barriers of exclusion.

Open access

Michael Parzer, Franz Astleithner and Irene Rieder

Abstract

This paper examines native consumption practices in immigrant grocery stores. Drawing on qualitative research on immigrant food retail in Vienna, we reveal how native Austrians use immigrant grocery shops, how they purchase products and which meanings they attribute to the act of shopping. We identified two different modes of shopping: While consuming for convenience is driven by aspects of practicability, consuming for exceptionality is related to the attraction of ‘the foreign’. This typology corresponds with two special types of consumers: The ‘Because’-consumers use immigrant shops mainly because of the ethnicity associated with the shops, the owners and their staff. The ‘Nevertheless’-consumers use these shops in spite of the entrepreneurs’ (imagined) ethnic origin and their migrant background. While ‘Because’-consumers run the risk of reproducing ethnic stereotypes, the ‘Nevertheless’- consumers may tend to retain or even strengthen their xenophobic resentments. These results partly challenge previous findings which argue that natives’ shopping routines in immigrant stores have become increasingly ordinary. We conclude by suggesting further research to examine the conditions under which an everyday engagement with foreign culture is promoted – without falling into the trap of reproducing symbolic boundaries between the majority and the minority.

Open access

Borivoje-Boris Đokić, Rhonda Polak, Jeanette D. Francis and Bahaudin G. Mujtaba

Abstract

This study examines the relationship between the use of technology to stay connected with home country and culture while adapting and integrating into the host culture. Through a survey the authors probe into how Haitian immigrants living in South Florida with varying levels of contact with their home country acculturate into the receiving society, exploring an increasingly salient experience of contemporary global migrants. Immigration is the experience of acculturation by individuals and the emergence of culturally plural societies, where both immigrants and host country citizens can live together in a positive environment. In this study, we report our exploratory findings and insights from a survey conducted among Haitian immigrants in South Florida area, studying the relationship between the scope of their electronic communication, and their level of integration into the mainstream American culture. Considerable research has been devoted to the understanding of immigration, acculturation and adaptation of adults, but much less has addressed these phenomena among Haitian population in reference to the use of communication technologies to keep in touch with their loved ones overseas and being fully adapted to their host country at the same time, asserting both identities. In other words, to what extend Haitians who wish to have contact with American culture, while maintaining their cultural attributes do so through the Internet and telecommunication technologies.

The objective of this study is to explore the correlation between cultural integration process and the level of Internet and telephony technologies usage among Haitians living in South Florida. The Internet and telephones are a necessity becoming central for one’s knowledge of environment, for the retention of one’s social contacts but also for the organization of one’s life. This is especially true for immigrants who often rely on their new and old social networks in order to adjust to the host country. This study looks at five well understood measures or indicators of the acculturation process, namely language proficiency, language use, length of time in the host culture, age, and peer contact. It also looks at the preferences of Internet related tools to contact friends and relatives both in Haiti and the USA by email, text messaging, and social sites. In our study, highly integrated Haitian immigrants are those who are young, have lived here for a long time, are proficient in Creole and English, speak to friends and relatives in both languages, and spend their free time with both Americans and other Haitians.

Open access

Nils Hans, Heike Hanhörster, Jan Polívka and Sabine Beißwenger

Zusammenfassung

Die neue Migrationsvielfalt und zunehmende Diversifizierung unserer Gesellschaft verändert urbane Räume. In den von Migration besonders geprägten Ankunftsräumen konzentrieren sich auch in erhöhtem Ausmaß von Armut betroffene Haushalte mit und ohne Migrationshintergrund. Dieser Quartierstypus, häufig als „Migrantenviertel" oder „ethnische Kolonie" bezeichnet, steht schon seit langer Zeit im Fokus geographischer und soziologischer Stadtforschung. Eng verknüpft mit diesen Quartieren ist die Diskussion potenziell benachteiligender Kontexteffekte. Ausgangspunkt des hier vorliegenden Beitrags ist die Beobachtung, dass Forschungen zu Kontexteffekten zumeist stark defizitorientiert sind. Es werden noch unzureichend jene Faktoren und Mechanismen in den Blick gerückt, welche die Zugänge von Migranten zu gesellschaftlichen Ressourcen beeinflussen. Der Beitrag sichtet empirische und theoretische Forschungsbeiträge und stellt dabei drei aktuelle Dynamiken, die die Ressourcenzugänge der in Ankunftsräumen Lebenden beeinflussen, in den Mittelpunkt. Dies sind die zunehmend multilokalen Bezüge Zugewanderter, die besondere Konzentration von migrantischen Gelegenheitsstrukturen in bestimmten Teilräumen unserer Städte sowie Governance-Prozesse in Reaktion auf zunehmende Diversität und sich stetig verändernde Bedarfe. Der Artikel möchte dazu beitragen, die bislang stark an Quartiersgrenzen ausgerichtete Integrationsforschung weiter zu öffnen und plädiert für eine gezieltere Betrachtung der Alltagspraktiken Zugewanderter. Die Charakteristika und Dynamiken von Ankunftsräumen illustrieren die zunehmende Durchlässigkeit räumlicher und sozialer Strukturen und damit auch die Bedeutung, Integration über den Quartierskontext hinaus zu denken.