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Open access

Tomasz Panecki

Abstract

The crowd-sourcing approach should be implemented into a new historical geoportal of Poland due to its increasing potential in WebGIS. Registered users will be able to acquire spatial data from various map series. As it requires feature class harmonization, a common symbol classification should be proposed. It will be based on chosen topographic maps of Polish land from the 19th and 20th centuries. Feature classes derived from archival maps will be standardized and reclassified, but with no information lost. This will be done in four steps which require: data acquisition, map content harmonization, feature class typification and attribute table elaboration. In addition, four methods of data harmonization can be distinguished: symbol sequence, semantic analogies, spatial relations and a combined method. The paper covers the elaboration of two thematic layers - roads and railways based on three topographic maps (Austrian 1:75 000, German 1:100 000, Russian 1: 126 000).

Open access

Iustina Lateş, Mihail Luca, Gelu Ilie and Nicoleta Iurist

Abstract

The paper presents research conducted on the optimization of urban water supply networks. One direction of optimization follows the use of GIS models for digitization on components system. The use of water supply system operation depends on the proper functioning of the structural and functional components.

In the analysis it was found that the main components of the system are the following: capture, headrace, puming stations, reservoirs, distribution networks.

Each component is made up of a multitude of sub-components with specific structural and functional character. Using GIS program it follows to specify custom properties using layers of structural and functional domains. Autocad Civil 3D, GisNet Set, ArcGis Server and Autocad Toolbase programs allowed to obtain thematic maps on specific areas of the system. The model of the study can vary from simple to complex and can be generalized to any water supply system for a specific use (urban area, villages, tourist resorts, shopping complexes etc.).

Open access

Izabela Sówka, Łukasz Pachurka, Yarosław Bezyk, Agnieszka Grzelka and Urszula Miller

Abstract

In Europe and around the world, field studies conducted in areas surrounding the odour source are used for evaluating the odour nuisance and for emission studies. In Europe, the Standards of the Association of German Engineers (VDI) - VDI 3940 series - for grid and odour-plume measurements are used. Carrying out this type of research allows for the assessment of olfactory air quality in a ‘quantitative’ analysis by characterizing a particular odour in terms of its impact and its frequency. In addition, in order to analyse and visualize the distribution of odours occurring in a certain area, by using the results of field studies, the Geographical Information System (GIS) tools may be applied. The research methodology, including the results of field measurements and geostatistical analysis in the assessment of odour nuisance, could be very important tools for the determination and spatial interpolation of odour intensity distributions and studying the range of odorous plumes. This paper presents the results of field measurements and geostatistical analysis conducted for selected municipal, industrial and agricultural sectors objects.

Open access

Cristian Costa, Lucian Lupu and Eduard Edelhauser

Abstract

Exploitation of coal from the Jiu Valley presents its own specific, in terms of coal mining deposit conditions, fact that required a continuous preoccupation for the monitoring of the work conditions, in order to ensure work-places safety. This paper intends to indicate a method of increasing the work environment safety using GIS technology, the analysis being completed at Lupeni Coal Mine, the largest Coal Mine in Jiu Valley, characterised by a low level of accidents that has taken place in there so far. It consists of an extension of accomplished studies in order to implement an intelligent dispatching system.

Open access

Anna Markowska and Jolanta Korycka-Skorupa

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to report a study aimed at systematic assessment of the functionality of commercially available software for the automatic generation of area cartograms. The issue of the wide choice of algorithms developed over the years for generating various types of surfaces has also been raised.

Cartograms (called also anamorphic maps) are constructed by changing the surface area of each spatial unit in step with the corresponding value of the mapped thematic variable (area cartogram) or changing accordingly the distance between the preselected focal point and other points on the map (distance cartogram). Depending on the shape of mapping units, the following three types of area cartograms can be distinguished:

  • proportional symbol cartograms were the original shapes of mapping units have been replaced with simple geometric shapes such as squares, rectangles or circles (for example, Dorling Circle Cartograms, square cartogram);

  • continuous regular cartograms where the shapes of areal units on the map resemble the actual shapes of the mapped units but their boundaries have been geometrized to consist of perpendicular sections;

  • continuous irregular cartograms where the shapes of areal units on the map resemble the actual shapes of the mapped units but unit boundaries are not straight lines.

Cartograms can also be constructed to preserve spatial contiguity (continuous cartograms) or not (noncontinuous cartograms), with the latter often preserving the underlying neighborhood relationships to some degree.

While constructing area cartogram, one needs to decide first the type of a surface to be developed, and therefore, the algorithm to be applied. The next step in map construction is the choice of software, where tool selection depends often on the predetermined type of the cartogram.

The study surveyed five programs for the construction of area cartograms – all available free of charge. Each of those software tools was used to generate area cartograms portraying data from the 2010 presidential election in Poland.

Two groups of area cartograms where generated for the purpose of this study: maps of the entire Poland by voivodships, showing the number of valid votes cast for the two presidential candidates in each voivodship, and maps of the Mazowieckie voivodship by county, portraying the number of valid votes cast for the individual candidates in each county.

The subsequent in-depth assessment of surveyed programs took into account eleven criteria including the number of cartogram types that might be developed using each program, availability of tools for the proper legend construction and display, possibility of supplementing the cartogram with complementary choropleth maps, the option for inserting map labels, the type of spatial data that can be used in the software (reference to points, lines, polygons) and so on.

The study has demonstrated that the tool included in the ArcGIS (Cartogram Utility for ArcGIS) best met the survey criteria scoring 9 points. The application Scape Toad placed second (7.5 pts.), while MapViewer 7 came third (6.25 pts.).

When generating cartograms in the available GIS programs, one should also pay attention to the visual qualities of the generated maps, and in particular, to the resemblance of shapes of spatial units on the map to the their actual geographic boundaries. Since the shape outlines obtained on the map vary depending on the underlying geodetic reference system, the best coordinate system for the mapped area should be selected. However, if such system cannot be used within a given cartogram generating tool, then the obtained cartogram should be exported and refined with some general software package for graphic editing.

Open access

Mária Barančoková and Pavol Kenderessy

Abstract

The landslide susceptibility was assessed based on multivariation analysis. The input parameters were represented by lithology, land use, slope inclination and average annual precipitation. These parameters were evaluated as independent variables, and the existing landslides as dependent variables. The individual input parameters were reclassified and spatially adjusted. Spatial analysis resulted in 15 988 combinations of input parameters representing the homogeneous condition unit (HCU ). Based on the landslide density within individual units, the HCU polygons have been classified according to landslide risk into stable, conditionally stable, conditionally stable and unstable (subdivided into low, medium and high landslide risk). A total of 2002 HCU s were affected by landslides, and the remaining 13 986 were not affected. The total HCU area affected by landslides is about 156.92 km2 (20.1%). Stable areas covered 623.01 km2 (79.8%), and conditionally stable areas covered 228.77 km2 (29.33% out of this area). Unstable areas were divided into three levels of landslide risk - low, medium and high risk. An area of 111.19 km2 (14.3%) represents low landslide risk, medium risk 29.7 km2 (3.8%) and 16.01 km2 (2%) represents high risk. Since Zlín Formation lithological unit covers approximately one-third of the study area, it also influences the overall landslide risk assessment. This lithological formation covers the largest area within all landslide risk classes as well as in conditionally stable areas. The most frequent slope class was in the range of 14-19. The higher susceptibility of Zlín Formation to landslides is caused mainly by different geomorphological value of claystone and sandstone sequence. The higher share of claystone results in higher susceptibility of this formation to exogenous degradation processes.

Open access

K. Drypczewski, A. Stepnowski and K. Bruniecki

Abstract

Earth Observation (EO) products are widely used by geospatial society. Over the last years a number of new applications of satellite imagery were proposed. This led to an increased interest in EO products, not only from researchers but also from companies and individuals. The authors constitute the essential part of the team that created the marine, web-GIS system - SafeCity GIS - for dissemination of data obtained from a 1.5 metre HRPT-MetOp satellite ground receiving station. To increase the operationability of the system the authors successfully attempted to broaden the offered functionality by integration with Service Support Environment (SSE). Due to this, EO products for the Pomeranian Region are served as web-services; amongst them there are True Color imagery, meteorological, algae monitoring and fire-detection services. The authors present the created solution for web service support for GIS system based on Service Support Environment and discuss its advantages and disadvantages.

Open access

Péter Csáfordi, Andrea Pődör, Jan Bug and Zoltán Gribovsyki

Abstract

- To implement the analysis of soil erosion with the USLE in a GIS environment, a new workflow has been developed with the ArcGIS Model Builder. The aim of this four-part framework is to accelerate data processing and to ensure comparability of soil erosion risk maps. The first submodel generates the stream network with connected catchments, computes slope conditions and the LS factor in USLE based on the DEM. The second submodel integrates stream lines, roads, catchment boundaries, land cover, land use, and soil maps. This combined dataset is the basis for the preparation of other USLE-factors. The third submodel estimates soil loss, and creates zonal statistics of soil erosion. The fourth submodel classifies soil loss into categories enabling the comparison of modelled and observed soil erosion. The framework was applied in a small forested catchment in Hungary. Although there is significant deviation between the erosion of different land covers, the predicted specific soil loss does not increase above the tolerance limit in any area unit. The predicted surface soil erosion in forest subcompartments mostly depends on the slope conditions.

Open access

Olga Kovalova

Set-up of Geometrical Network of Sustainable Streams

In order to set up a "hydrologically accurate" digital model of landscape, which allows identifying borders of flooded territories in the period of changes in the water level, it is important to have data in the hydrography stratum on the direction of river streams. The given issue can be solved by creating a geometrical network of sustainable water streams. The geometrical network of sustainable streams represents a mathematic model of different network structures object classes.

Open access

Hana Kuchyňková and Tomáš Mikita

Visual Exposure Within the Dolni Morava Biosphere Reserve

Impacts on landscape character and tools for the support of decision making in the Czech Republic have always been important subjects in the sphere of landscape character and visual/environmental assessment. Only one publication could be found, however, that dealt with the use of landscape indicators for evaluating landscape character in the Czech Republic. In this study, we add to this by addressing the issue of visual exposure.

In this project, we construct and compare two possible alternatives for computing visual exposure using GIS tools. The two alternatives differ in using a regular grid layer of viewpoints or of viewpoints based on actual use of frequented sites. The procedure was verified using the model area of the Dolni Morava Biosphere Reserve. The version based on most frequented sites produced a map with increased areas of visual exposure. This paper also goes on to suggest changes to the present regulations and other practical applications of the method.