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Open access

Ryszard Kłos

Abstract

This series of articles presents the problem of undertaking the high risk project of modernisation of hydrogen incinerators on a submarine. The article describes technical issues connected with the flow capacity of a modernised hydrogen incinerator.

Open access

Jacek Szumbarski, Slawomir Blonski and Tomasz Kowalewski

Impact of Transversely-Oriented Wall Corrugation on Hydraulic Resistance of a Channel Flow

The impact of the transversely-oriented sinusoidal wall corrugation on the hydraulic drag is investigated numerically for the flow through the channel of finite width and with flat sidewalls. The numerical method, based on the domain transformation and Chebyshev-Galerkin discretization, is used to investigate the flow resistance of the laminar, parallel and pressure-driven flow. The obtained results are compared to the reference case, i.e., to the flow through the channel with rectangular cross section of the same aspect ratio. Simple explanation of the gain in the volumetric flow rate observed in the flow through spanwise-periodic channel with long-wave transversely-oriented wall corrugation is provided. In the further analysis, pressure drop in the flows with larger Reynolds numbers are studied numerically by means of the finite-volume commercial package Fluent. Preliminary experimental results confirm the predicted tendency.

Open access

Michał Stosiak, Maciej Zawiślak and Bohdan Nishta

Abstract

The main aim of this research was to determine in three ways, i.e. experimentally, analytically and by means of numerical modelling, the resistances of the flow of a natural liquid in a helical pipe and in curved pipes. The analyses were carried out for three pipes: one helical pipe and two curved pipes. Each of the pipes was 2 m long and its inside diameter was 4 mm. The experiment was carried out on a test stand making it possible to measure the rate of the flow of the liquid, the temperature at the pipe’s inlet and outlet and the pressure at the pipe’s inlet and outlet. The resistances of the flow of the liquid were calculated from analytical or empirical formulas found in the literature on the subject. Moreover, numerical modelling was performed using the finite volume element method.

Open access

Viliam Nagy, Peter Šurda, Ľubomír Lichner, Attila J. Kovács and Gábor Milics

Abstract

Soil compaction causes important physical modifications at the subsurface soil, especially from 10 to 30 cm depths. Compaction leads to a decrease in infiltration rates, in saturated hydraulic conductivity, and in porosity, as well as causes an increase in soil bulk density. However, compaction is considered to be a frequent negative consequence of applied agricultural management practices in Slovakia.

Detailed determination of soil compaction and the investigation of a compaction impact on water content, water penetration depth and potential change in water storage in sandy loam soil under sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was carried out at 3 plots (K1, K2 and K3) within an experimental site (field) K near Kalinkovo village (southwest Slovakia). Plot K1 was situated on the edge of the field, where heavy agricultural equipment was turning. Plot K2 represented the ridge (the crop row), and plot K3 the furrow (the inter–row area of the field). Soil penetration resistance and bulk density of undisturbed soil samples was determined together with the infiltration experiments taken at all defined plots.

The vertical bulk density distribution was similar to the vertical soil penetration resistance distribution, i.e., the highest values of bulk density and soil penetration resistance were estimated at the plot K1 in 15–20 cm depths, and the lowest values at the plot K2. Application of 50 mm of water resulted in the penetration depth of 30 cm only at all 3 plots. Soil water storage measured at the plot K2 (in the ridge) was higher than the soil water storage measured at the plot K3 (in the furrow), and 4.2 times higher than the soil water storage measured at the most compacted plot K1 on the edge of the field. Results of the experiments indicate the sequence in the thickness of compacted soil layers at studied plots in order (from the least to highest compacted ones): K2–K3–K1.

Open access

Ł. Bednarski and J. Michalczyk

Abstract

The suitability of the currently used vibratory transport models for the case of applying the vibratory conveyors in the metallurgical industry, was analysed in the hereby paper. It was found that these models, due to not taking into account an influence of the air flow through the feed layer, do not usually correspond with conditions occurring in this industry. The analysis of the productivity of vibratory conveyors applied in the metallurgical industry should include an influence of dusty and powdery fractions present in transported materials, since the air flow resistance can cause-in such cases-a significant decrease of the transport velocity. The mathematical and simulation model of the feed, taking into account the influence of the air flowing through the feed, was formulated in the study. Its compatibility with experimental investigations was also pointed out.

Open access

Ireneusz Laks, Krzysztof Szoszkiewicz and Tomasz Kałuża

Abstract

The analysis of in situ measurements of velocity distribution in the floodplain of the lowland river has been carried out. The survey area was located on a bypass channel of the Warta River (West of Poland) which is filled with water only in case of flood waves. The floodplain is covered by grassland and reed marsh habitats. The velocity measurements were performed with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) in a cross-section with a bed reinforced with concrete slabs. The measured velocities have reflected the differentiated impact of various vegetation types on the loss of water flow energy. The statistical analyses have proven a relationship between the local velocities and the type of plant communities.

Open access

Łukasz Mika

Loss coefficients of ice slurry in sudden pipe contractions

In this paper, flow systems which are commonly used in fittings elements such as contractions in ice slurry pipelines, are experimentally investigated. In the study reported in this paper, the consideration was given to the specific features of the ice slurry flow in which the flow behaviour depends mainly on the volume fraction of solid particles. The results of the experimental studies on the flow resistance, presented herein, enabled to determine the loss coefficient during the ice slurry flow through the sudden pipe contraction. The mass fraction of solid particles in the slurry ranged from 5 to 30%. The experimental studies were conducted on a few variants of the most common contractions of copper pipes: 28/22 mm, 28/18 mm, 28/15 mm, 22/18 mm, 22/15 mm and 18/15 mm. The recommended (with respect to minimal flow resistance) range of the Reynolds number (Re about 3000-4000) for the ice slurry flow through sudden contractions was presented in this paper.

Open access

Imed Loukam, Bachir Achour and Lakhdar Djemili

Abstract

When calculating uniform flows in open conduits and channels, Chezy’s resistance coefficient is not a problem data and its value is arbitrarily chosen. Such major disadvantage is met in all the geometric profiles of conduits and channels. Knowing the value of this coefficient is essential to both the design of the channel and normal depth calculation. The main objective of our research work is to focus upon the identification of the resistance coefficient relationship. On the basis of the rough model method (RMM) for the calculation of conduits and channels, a general explicit relation of the resistance coefficient in turbulent flow is established with different geometric profiles, particularly the egg-shaped conduit. Chezy’s resistance coefficient depends strongly on the filling rate, the discharge, the longitudinal slope, the absolute roughness of the internal walls of the conduit and the kinematic viscosity of the liquid. Moreover, in this work, a simplified method is presented to determine Chezy’s resistance coefficient with a limited number of data, namely the discharge, the slope of the conduit, the absolute roughness and the kinematic viscosity. Last but not least, after studying the variation of Chezy’s resistance coefficient as a function of the filling rate, an equally explicit expression is given for the easy calculation of this coefficient when its maximum value is reached. Examples of calculation are suggested in order to show how the Chezy’s coefficient can be calculated in the egg-shaped conduit.

Open access

Márta Koczka Bara, Yvetta Velísková, Renáta Dulovičová and Radoslav Schügerl

Abstract

The spatial and temporal patterns of surface water (SW) - groundwater (GW) exchange are significantly affected by riverbed silting, clogging or erosion processes, by altering the thickness and hydraulic conductivity of riverbed sediments. The duration of SW-GW exchange is controlled by the drainage and infiltration resistance of river bottom sediments (e.g. Andrássy et al., 2012). Generally, these two parameters primarily depend on the hydraulic conductivity and on the thickness of clogged layer.

In this study the flow processes between GW and SW were modeled by model TRIWACO for different infiltration resistance and drainage resistance of riverbed sediments. The model area is situated on the Rye Island, which is a lowland area with very low slope. In this area a channel network was built up, where the flow conditions are controlled by water-gates. Because of the low slope and the system of water gates built on the channels, the riverbeds are influenced by intensive clogging processes. First, the applicability of model TRIWACO in the study area was tested by modelling the response of GW on SW level fluctuation. It was simulated, how the regulation of water level and flow direction in the channels influence the GW level, especially in extreme hydrological conditions (drought/flood), and if the GW flow direction and GW level change as it was expected. Next, the influence of channel network silting up on GW-SW interaction was modeled. The thickness of riverbed sediments was measured and their hydraulic conductivity from disturbed sediment samples was evaluated. The assessed hydraulic conductivity was used to calculate the infiltration resistance and the drainage resistance of riverbed sediments in the study area. Then, the GW level and flow direction was simulated for different infiltration resistance and drainage resistance of sediments.

Open access

Sigrid Netherer, Magdalena Ehn, Emma Blackwell and Thomas Kirisits

Abstract

We performed an inoculation experiment using the blue-stain fungus Endoconidiophora polonica at the Rosalia Roof study site, which was set up to study drought effects on Norway spruce susceptibility to attacks by the European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus. Tree resistance parameters such as resin flow rate and extent of hypersensitive wound reaction in the phloem were investigated prior to and after fungal infection. Sample trees with different drought treatments (trees fully covered or semi-covered by roofs, control trees) were inoculated with E. polonica in July 2014. In order to check for areas of phloem necrosis, the outer bark around the inoculation holes was scratched off 6 weeks later. We recorded the amount of resin exudation within 12 hours overnight in August and September 2013 and 2014. Although wound reaction zones did not differ in size between tree collectives of the various treatments, fully covered trees tended to exhibit larger necrotic areas compared to control trees. The least water supplied trees showed lowest resin flow rates prior to fungal inoculation, but were the only group to show significantly enhanced resin flow five weeks after the evaluation of defence reactions. Our results agree with earlier findings that wounding and few fungal inoculations can increase tree resistance in the medium term given not too severe water stress. Further investigations will clarify how water stress affects the availability of non-structural carbohydrates for secondary metabolism, when depletion of resources eventually occurs, and at which point trees are most susceptible to bark beetle attack.