Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 9 of 9 items for

  • Keyword: Europska unia x
Clear All Modify Search
Open access

Patricia Kaplánová and Uroš Pinterič

Abstract

Author in the article tries to analyse different elements of document called European Constitution. Analysis is supported with theoretical framework of federalism, presented by Brezovšek. Authors is playing with idea of (con)federal and international organization elements of European Constitution and their mix. They are also trying to set some connections between so called common European identity as necessary condition to give legitimacy to the European Constitution. This became important question after „votes of non-confidence“ to the European Constitution in France, despite it should be addressed already before. However, European Constitution is important document on the path of European integration and lack of support to it will slow down this process of widening and deepening European ties.

Open access

Veronika Sklenková

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to examine the actual integration potential of the European Neighbourhood Policy and its related regional initiative - Eastern Partnership for the countries of the Eastern Europe that currently do not have an official perspective of the EU membership. Based on the analysis of official documents we would like to assess the benefits that EU offers to its neighbours under this policy in return for certain reforms and in doing so to analyse the degree of exogenous integration it actually enables to achieve. We assume that for the time being the EU’s European Neighbourhood Policy aims to provide the neighbour countries with an alternative to the accession process since neither the EU nor the neighbour countries are now ready for their potential membership. However, this alternative could have a significant integration potential (even though without a full EU membership as the last step) if all the rules are complied with and the procedures are consistently followed. To support our postulate, we compare the mechanisms and instruments of this policy with those used during the EU enlargement process.

Open access

Wojciech Gizicki

Abstract

The problems faced in the first decade of the 21st century by the integrating Europe are quite serious and require an effective action. The above is true for both economic, political and social issues. Economic dilemmas are best seen in the Economic and Monetary Union, competitiveness and economic growth. Their importance has been raised even higher by the now overwhelming global economic downturn. Political issues are invariably connected with the future vision of the European Union, and relate, among others, to the identity, security, stability and prominence of individual states. The formal empowerments of the EU remain debatable, especially when seen through the context of (non)ratification of the EU Constitution and the Lisbon Treaty. Social problems focus mainly on the demographic decline, illegal immigration, dissimilation, inequalities in life quality, etc. The EU has to be constantly guided by the demand that these difficulties are effectively surmounted.

Open access

Hamed Alavi and Tatsiana Khamichonak

Abstract

Estonian immigration policies have been largely influenced by its historical development. The figures from 1989 show that the population was only 61.5 percent Estonian by origin with the remaining 38.5 percent belonging to other ethnic backgrounds. Remarkably, 26 percent of the Estonian population were foreign born.(1) After joining the European Union in 2004, Estonia faced a high rate of outward migration, which was connected, inter alia, to the higher average salaries of the other Member States. The rapid expansion of the Estonian economy and growth of employment coupled with the negative population growth contributed to the need of foreign skilled labour.(2) Besides, the recent reform in the education system accounts for shortage of technical specialists in some labour areas.(3) It is thus not surprising that Estonian government employs focused, selective and demand-based immigration strategies to fight the ‘global war for talents’.(4),(5) The objective of the restrictive immigration policy is to attract first and foremost highly qualified professionals in the strategic economic areas while avoiding uncontrolled immigration and increase the sustainability and competitiveness of the Estonian economy. First part of current paper provides an overview of who falls under the classification of a ‘skilled’ worker and the Estonian perspective on talent attraction and retention. The second part lays down the existing legal framework, which covers the conditions and procedures of knowledge-worker’s immigration to Estonia. Particularly, this includes the relatively recent amendments to the Aliens Act 2004, which came into force in 2008 and set forth a facilitated approach towards entry and residence requirements.

Open access

Tomáš Malatinec

Abstract

EU agrarian policy is one of the most extensive policies of the EU. The aim of this paper is to analyse the EU agrarian policy legal framework from the point of view of law & development concept. Final remarks are based on an analysis of three topics: (1st) law & development concept, (2nd) agrarian policies and development, and (3rd) EU concept of development. Results show position of the EU agrarian policy legal framework in the EU development practice. The EU agrarian policy legal framework might be labelled as “law in development”. Several instruments have been implemented, but their impact on development is not unequivocal. There is no doubt about role of law in development as well as that the EU agricultural policy is core policy for development of the EU regions. Based on interconnections and justification we can argue that the EU agrarian policy legal framework is a substantial part of internal EU development concept and practice.

Open access

Loreta Schwarczová and Anna Bandlerová

Abstract

The land policy plays a key role in the frame of priorities of the EU and influences the political, economic and social development of countries and regions. The Faculty of European Studies and Regional Development of the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra has been active in various aspects of the policy mainly by the support of national and international funding programmes. One of the most actively developed European funding programme at the faculty is the Jean Monnet programme. The structure and priorities of the Jean Monnet programme are sufficiently complemented to the mission and priorities of the faculty at the educational and scientific level. The paper especially focuses on the realization, impact and sustainability of achieved project results.

Open access

Edward Pierzgalski

Abstract

Agriculture and environment are among others the most important priorities of the European Union. Agriculture is strongly influenced by the state of the environment, including water resources. In addition to many other policies, the EU water policy is crucial for the sustainable development of rural areas. Directives are the main tools for implementation of water policy. This article contains an overview of the directives on aspects of quality and quantity of water resources. Within the paper three most important agricultural areas of the Directive are characterized: the Water Framework Directive, the Floods Directive and the Nitrates Directive. Presented mandatory EU action aimed at their implementation and the problems associated with it. Current proposals for changes in the EU water policy are described.

Open access

Barbara Pavlíková

Abstract (EN)

Environmental protection belongs in accordance with the Article 4 par. 2 letter e) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union between joint powers of the European Union and the Member States. In terms of vertical division of powers, this means that Member States and the Union engage in this field while respecting the principle of subsidiarity and proportionality. The European Union adopts in the field of protection of the single components of the environment mainly framework programs and directives, aimed at defining the general objectives, while the choice of tools to achieve them is usually left to the discretion of Member States. Given that the directive which is the most common act of secondary legislation in this area can be transposed into national law only in the form of generally binding legal act, its objectives at the national level are contained in national laws. Specific conditions are then further laid down by the decree of the responsible department - in the case of environmental protection particularly the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of the Slovak Republic, in cooperation with other central State administration authorities.

The contribution focuses primarily on the legal regulation of one of the components of the environment - air, which is an important factor influencing the quality of life of the population, but the rules defined in this area also have considerable impact on the economy of the country. The work provides a comparison of Slovak legal acts and rules enshrined in primary and secondary EU law, as well as its non-binding acts.

Open access

Dušan Leška

Abstract

The aim of the study is to analyse the Europeanisation of Slovak political parties in the various stages of the transition and transformation of the political system of Slovakia before and after the entry into the European Union. Methodologically, the paper is based on the concept of Ladrech, who divided five areas of research to suit the study of the impact of the Europeanisation on political parties and their politics. Visible can be changes in political programmes, organisational changes, a formula of party competition, relations between parties and government, relations beyond the national party system (a new look at transnational cooperation between political parties). Our research proved that the Europeanisation has been visible at all stages of development, with varying degrees of intensity and in various forms since the signing of the association agreement with the European Union. Its effect was important already in the stage of the society transition when it helped the return of Slovakia on the path of democratic development. In the two stages of development, Europeanisation created an individual line of cleavage of political parties, affected the rivalry of political parties, and thus a party system model. Unambiguously, it was reflected in political programmes of all parties, and an important role was played by the incorporation of political parties in the European political parties, by their cooperation and coordination of their policies. The election in the European Parliament was an important turning point in completion of programme orientations of political parties.