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Open access

Fred J. Pettersen

Abstract

The term sensitivity is sometimes misused when discussing volume impedance measurements. This is a critique of the name of the quantity sensitivity, as well as pointing out how the term easily can be misinterpreted. To resolve the issue, a shift of focus towards volume impedance density, which is a more useful quantity, is proposed. A new parameter, perceptivity, is introduced. Perceptivity is useful tool for characterization of measurement systems, to objectively compare systems, and to formulate instrument specifications.

Open access

Vinicius G Sirtoli, Kaue F Morcelles and Volney C Vincence

Abstract

Bioimpedance measurement systems often use the Howland current sources to excite the biological material under study. Usually, difference or instrumentation amplifiers are used to measure the resulting voltage drop on this material. In these circuits, common mode voltage appears as artifacts in the measurement. Most researches on current sources are focused on improving the output impedance, letting other characteristics aside. In this paper, it is made a brief review on the load common mode voltage and output swing of various topologies of Howland current sources. Three circuits are proposed to reduce load common mode voltage and enhance load capability by using a fully differential amplifier as active component. These circuits are equated, simulated and implemented. The three proposed circuits were able to deliver an output current with cut-off frequency (-3dB) higher than 1 MHz for loads as big as 4.7 kΩ. The worst measured load common mode voltage was smaller than 24 mV for one of the circuits and smaller than 8 mV for the other two. Consequently, it could be obtained increases in the Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR) up to 60 dB when compared to the Enhanced Howland Current Source (EHCS).

Open access

M. Amini, J. Hisdal and H. Kalvøy

Abstract

Rapid development in the field of tissue engineering necessitates implementation of monitoring methods for evaluation of the viability and characteristics of the cell cultures in a real-time, non-invasive and non-destructive manner. Current monitoring techniques are mainly histological and require labeling and involve destructive tests to characterize cell cultures. Bioimpedance measurement technique which benefits from measurement of electrical properties of the biological tissues, offers a non-invasive, label-free and real-time solution for monitoring tissue engineered constructs. This review outlines the fundamentals of bioimpedance, as well as electrical properties of the biological tissues, different types of cell culture constructs and possible electrode configuration set ups for performing bioimpedance measurements on these cell cultures. In addition, various bioimpedance measurement techniques and their applications in the field of tissue engineering are discussed.

Open access

Douglas Dutra and Pedro Bertemes-Filho

Abstract

The objective of this work is to develop a technique for filtering parasitic effects from the impedance spectra (IS) measured in biological material phantoms. IS data are contaminated with unexpected capacitive and inductive effects from cable, input/output amplifiers capacitances, electrode polarization, temperature and contact pressure when collecting data. It is proposed a model which contains an RLC-network in series with the Cole model (RSC), then called RLC-Cole. It was built four circuits composed by resistors, capacitors and inductors. An impedance analyzer (HF2IS) was used to perform the measurements in the frequency range of 1 to 3000 kHz. Data were fitted into the model and comparisons to the nominal values were made. In order to validate the proposed model, a gelatin phantom and a chicken breast muscle impedance spectra were also collected and analyzed. After filtering, Cole fitting was performed. Results showed a maximum root-mean-square error of 1% for the circuits, 2.63% for the gelatin phantom, whereas 2.01% for the chicken breast. The RLC-Cole model could significantly remove parasitic effects out of a tissue impedance spectrum measured by a 4-point electrode probe. This may be highly important in EIS systems whose objective is to discriminate a normal tissue from a cancerous one.

Open access

Robert Brajkovič, Tomaž Žagar and Dejan Križaj

Abstract

The lock-in method is one of the most frequently used methods for reconstruction of measured signals and as such frequently applied in the (bio)impedance method to determine the modulus and phase of the (bio)impedance. In implementation of the method in a (bio)impedance measurement device one has to consider possible non synchronized frequencies of the reference and the analyzed signals as well as potential sources of noise. In this work we analyzed these errors theoretically and experimentally. We show that both amplitude and phase errors depend on the relative difference of the frequencies of the reference and investigated signal as well as the number of integration periods. Theoretically, these errors vanish during the determination of the (bio)impedance modulus and phase. In practical implementation the inaccuracies appear at points of very low determined signal amplitudes due to the limited accuracy of analog to digital converters and are distributed around these points due to other sources of noise inherent in implementation of the measurement device.

Open access

Jaan Ojarand and Mart Min

Abstract

Different excitation signals are applicable in the wideband impedance spectroscopy in general. However, in electrical bioimpedance (EBI) measurements, there are limitations that set specific demands on the properties of the excitation signals. This paper compares the efficiency of different excitation signals in a graspable presentation and gives recommendations for their use. More exactly, the paper deals with finding the efficient excitation waveforms for the fast spectroscopy of electrical bioimpedance. Nevertheless, the described solutions could be useful also in other implementations of impedance spectroscopy intended for frequency domain characterization of different objects.

Open access

Oliver Pabst

Abstract

It has been demonstrated before that human skin can be modeled as a memristor (memory resistor). Here we realize a memristor bridge by applying two voltages of opposite signs at two different skin sites. By this setup it is possible to use human skin as a frequency doubler and half-wave rectifier which is an application of the non-linear electrical properties of human skin. The corresponding electrical measurements are non-linear since these are affected by the applied stimulus itself.

Open access

Lucia Mala, Tomas Maly, František Zahalka, Vaclav Bunc, Ales Kaplan, Radim Jebavy and Martin Tuma

Abstract

The goal of this study was to identify and compare body composition (BC) variables in elite female athletes (age ± years): volleyball (27.4 ± 4.1), softball (23.6 ± 4.9), basketball (25.9 ± 4.2), soccer (23.2 ± 4.2) and handball (24.0 ± 3.5) players. Fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass, percentage of fat mass (FMP), body cell mass (BCM), extracellular mass (ECM), their ratio, the percentage of BCM in FFM, the phase angle (α), and total body water, with a distinction between extracellular (ECW) and intracellular water, were measured using bioimpedance analysis. MANOVA showed significant differences in BC variables for athletes in different sports (F60.256 = 2.93, p < 0.01, η2 = 0.407). The results did not indicate any significant differences in FMP or α among the tested groups (p > 0.05). Significant changes in other BC variables were found in analyses when sport was used as an independent variable. Soccer players exhibited the most distinct BC, differing from players of other sports in 8 out of 10 variables. In contrast, the athletes with the most similar BC were volleyball and basketball players, who did not differ in any of the compared variables. Discriminant analysis revealed two significant functions (p < 0.01). The first discriminant function primarily represented differences based on the FFM proportion (volleyball, basketball vs. softball, soccer). The second discriminant function represented differences based on the ECW proportion (softball vs. soccer). Although all of the members of the studied groups competed at elite professional levels, significant differences in the selected BC variables were found. The results of the present study may serve as normative values for comparison or target values for training purposes.

Open access

Veronika Candráková Čerňanová, Ján Čerňan, Zuzana Danková and Daniela Siváková

Abstract

The pre-season preparation aim is to improve the components of physical performance through the changes in training intensity, gradual increment in volume, variation in training frequency and optimizing the body composition. The problem in team sports is the lack of individualization, because most coaches in team sports focus their training on the group and not on improving each player’s strengths and weaknesses. The aim of this study is to identify differences in the body composition and physical performance of young ice-hockey players (15-18 years) with different pre-season training approaches (collective vs. individual). This longitudinal study monitored 13 ice-hockey players with collective training and 8 ice-hockey players with individual training during their pre-season preparation. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance analyzer BIA 101 (Akern, S.R.L.) and the Myotest PRO determined player physical performance in power, force and velocity. Performance and body composition comparisons showed gradual increase in the differences between the two studied groups during the training process. This increase escalated to significant differences in the final output test results and was especially noted in the upper limbs power and force (p=0.016; p<0.001) and lower limbs power and force (p=0.029; p=0.001) with better performance results by individual training approach. Stepwise linear regression also showed significant relationship between upper limbs power, resistance (p<0.001) and fat mass (p<0.001). The upper limbs force was significantly associated with intra-cellular (p<0.001) and extra-cellular water (p=0.026), body cell mass index (p<0.001), basal metabolic rate (p<0.001) and training approach (p<0.001), while the lower limbs power was significantly associated with total body water (p<0.001), training approach (p=0.033) and the pre-season preparation phase (p<0.001). In addition, the training approach (p<0.001), preparation phase (p<0.001), player position (p=0.012) and fat free mass (p<0.001) were significantly associated with lowers limb force. Our results indicate the importance of using an individual training approach and optimal body composition in physical performance progression.

Open access

Michael Bodo, Leslie D. Montgomery, Frederick J. Pearce and Rocco Armonda

Abstract

Neuromonitoring is performed to prevent further (secondary) brain damage by detecting low brain blood flow following a head injury, stroke or neurosurgery. This comparative neuromonitoring study is part of an ongoing investigation of brain bioimpedance (rheoencephalography-REG) as a measuring modality for use in both civilian and military medical settings, such as patient transport, emergency care and neurosurgery intensive care. In a previous animal study, we validated that REG detects cerebral blood flow autoregulation (CBF AR), the body’s physiological mechanism that protects the brain from adverse effects of low brain blood flow (hypoxia/ischemia). In the current descriptive pig study, the primary goal was to compare measurements of CBF AR made with REG to measurements made with other neuromonitoring modalities: laser Doppler flow (LDF); intracranial pressure (ICP); absolute CBF; carotid flow (CF); and systemic arterial pressure (SAP). Challenges administered to anesthetized pigs were severe induced hemorrhage (bleeding) and resuscitation; CO2 inhalation; and positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP). Data were stored on a computer and processed offline. After hemorrhage, the loss of CBF AR was detected by REG, ICP, and CF, all of which passively followed systemic arterial SAP after bleeding. Loss of CBF AR was the earliest indicator of low brain blood flow: loss of CBF AR occurred before a decrease in cardiac output, which is the cardiovascular response to hemorrhage. A secondary goal of this study was to validate the usefulness of new automated data processing software developed to detect the status of CBF AR. Both the new automated software and the traditional (observational) evaluation indicated the status of CBF AR. REG indicates the earliest breakdown of CBF AR; cessation of EEG for 2 seconds and respiration would be used as additional indicators of loss of CBF AR. The clinical significance of this animal study is that REG shows potential for use as a noninvasive, continuous and non-operator dependent neuromonitor of CBF AR in both civilian and military medical settings. Human validation studies of neuromonitoring with REG are currently in progress.