Monta Madelāne, Angelika Krūmiņa, Raimonds Sīmanis, Ģirts Šķenders, Andrejs Ivanovs, Gunta Stūre and Ludmila Vīksna
Immune activation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is driven by microbial translocation and in HIV patients is one of the contributors to faster progression of liver disease along with increased cell apoptosis. The aim of the study was to compare microbial translocation and apoptosis markers in HIV monoinfected and HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected patients, depending on HIV immune status and antiretroviral treatment (ART). We analysed data for 78 HIV monoinfected and 105 HIV/HCV coinfected patients from the Rīga East University Hospital. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), endotoxin core antibodies (EndoCAb), cytokeratin 18 (CK18) and cyto-chrome c (Cyt-c) levels were measured. No significant difference in LPS, EndoCAb, Cyt-c levels between HIV and HIV/HCV patients was found. The CK18 level was higher in the HIV/HCV group. Correlation between CD4+ cell count and EndoCAb antibodies was found in HCV positive patients. There was a significant effect of ART on markers for EndoCAb IgA and EndoCAb IgM antibodies in the HIV monoinfected group. Correlation between CD4+ cell count and EndoCAb antibodies and LPS was found in HIV/HCV patients on ART. Coinfection with HCV can lead to more pronounced response in EndoCAb antibody production and higher levels of cell apoptosis markers, despite similar LPS levels. ART has a positive effect on immune activation.
D. Soysal, S. Kızıldağ, B. Saatlı, C. Posacı, S. Soysal, M. Koyuncuoğlu and Ö. E. Doğan
Our aim was to investigate the effects of antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) antibody Bevacizumab on endometrial explants and on apoptotic gene expression levels in the rat endometriosis model. Endometriotic implants were surgically formed, and rats treated with (i) 1 mg/kg single subcutaneous injection of depot leuprolide acetate; (ii) 2.5 mg/kg of single intaperitoneal injection of bevacizumab; (iii) intraperitoneal injection of saline. Histopathologic scores and adhesion scores of endometriotic foci and levels of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), Cytochrome c (Cyt-c), B-cell lymphoma/ leukemia 2 (Bcl-2) and B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xl) mRNA gene expressions of endometriotic foci. Bevacizumab treatment decreased the endometriotic explant size compared with control. Bevacizumab-treated rats had lower total adhesion scores when compared with the control group. Semiquantitative evaluation of the persistence of endometrial epithelial cells in the explants showed a lower score in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist-treated rats compared with control rats. In Bevacizumab increased expression of Bax 3.1-fold, Cyt-c 1.3-fold and decreased expression of Bcl-2 0.4-fold, Bcl-xl 0.8-fold compared with the control group. The GnRH agonist increased expression of Bax 3.0 fold, Cyt-c 1.3 fold and decreased expression of Bcl-2 0.4-fold, Bcl-xl 0.8-fold, compared with the control group. This study suggests that a novel angiogenesis inhibitor, anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab is as effective as GnRH agonist in the regression of the endometriotic lesions in rat endometriosis model. One possible mechanism of this effect is the induction of apoptosis.
Main Pro-Apoptotic Member of BCL-2 Family Proteins-BAX
Programmed cell death (apoptosis) plays a vital role in the regulation of cellular homeostasis. Because of apoptosis fundamental importance, this process is highly regulated. One important set of factors involved in apoptosis regulation is the Bcl-2 family proteins. Bcl-2 family members form a complex regulatory network that controls cell survival and death in response to different physiological and pathological signals. This family includes both pro- and anti-apoptotic members, and Bax protein (Mol wt 21 kDa) is a major pro-apoptotic factor with multifunctional activity. This review summarizes new data about the main representative of Bcl-2 family-Bax, its structure and mechanism(s) by which this protein modulates apoptosis.
Sylwia Borys, Ronza Khozmi, Wiesława Kranc, Artur Bryja, Marta Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska, Michal Jeseta and Bartosz Kempisty
Cell death plays an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of multicellular organisms. It can occur in a controlled manner by apoptosis or autophagy. Cell death which occurs regardless of regulatory factors include necrosis, mitotic catastrophe or oncosis.
Apoptosis and necrosis are cellular process that leads to cell death. However their mechanisms are different, although factors triggering them can be similar. Necrosis and apoptosis have many different characteristics in terms of biochemistry and morphology.
There are two main pathways of apoptosis induction signal: receptor - dependent and mitochondrial. The outsider apoptotic pathway is induced by external factors stimulating membrane receptors having an intracellular domain called death domain.
Mitochondrial apoptotic pathway is activated by increased concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, disorders electrolyte transport and an increase in the concentration of the calcium ions in the cytoplasm. In response to stress-factors, mitochondrial channels are opened, so that is released into the cytoplasm cytochrome C. This work is aimed at an overall description of exchanged processes.
Jovan Luković, Marina Mitrović, Ivanka Zelen, Petar Čanović, Milan Zarić and Ivana Nikolić
Chalcones represent precursor compounds for flavonoids biosynthesis in plants. Chalcones, 1,3-diaryl-2-propen- 1-ones, have unique chemical structure with conjugated double bonds and delocalized π-electron system on both aromatic rings. Various studies have shown that chemical structure of chalcone is responsible for their antitumor effect. In our study, we have examined the antitumor effect of chalcone analogue (E) -1- (4-ethoxy-3-methoxyphenyl) -5- methylhex-1-en-3-one (CH) on HeLa cells. The antitumor efficiency of different CH concentrations was compared to the antitumor effects of dehydrozingerone and cisplatin. The viability of the cells was evaluated using MTT assay; type of the cell death was evaluated by Annexin V-FITC/7-AAD staining using FACS analysis; morphology changes of treated cells were visualized and compared to untreated cells using phase contrast microscopy. The result of our research showed that CH have a stronger antitumor compared to the effect both of dehydrozingerone and cisplatin. Our results indicated that chalcone analogue induced cell death via activation of apoptosis more powerfully compared to the apoptosis induced with dehydrozingerone and cisplatin.
Paweł Wysocki, Aleksandra Łyjak and Władysław Kordan
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of boar semen storage in different short-term extenders (BTS, Kortowo-3, and M III) on the percentage of spermatozoa showing proapoptotic and necrotic changes. For the first time in this study, Annexin V isolated from swine placenta has been used to determine proapoptotic changes in stored boar spermatozoa. The changes were determined using the IN Cell Analyzer 2000. A gradual decrease in motility was observed on successive days of storage. Spermatozoa incubated in the BTS extender were characterised by the highest average motility, which reached 75% on the 1st d and 39% on day 5. Motility of spermatozoa stored in BTS was significantly higher than those stored in Kortowo-3 and M III extenders after 5 d of storage. Diluted semen contained 1.5% to 2.8% spermatozoa with proapoptotic changes. The discussed process was intensified on the 3rd d of storage when the percentage of apoptotic spermatozoa was determined at 8.3% to 14.6%, and the content of dead spermatozoa exceeded 25%. The analysed extenders differed insignificantly in their ability to protect semen against proapoptotic changes during storage. From the methodological point of view, Hoechst 33258 could be used additionally to stain sperm cells regardless of their status.
Epy Muhammad Luqman, I Ketut Sudiana, Win Darmanto, Agung Budianto Achmad and Widjiati
Introduction: The aim of the study was to describe the process of neuron death in the cerebral cortex caused by embryonic carbofuran exposure. Material and Methods: 81 mouse foetuses from 27 breeding mice were used in the study. Carbofuran was administered by gavage from the 6th to the 15th day of gestation to two groups: one at 0.0208 and the other at 0.0417 mg/kg b.w. On the 17th day, the mice were sacrificed and the foetuses were taken to measure the ROS (malondialdehyde/MDA and superoxide dismutase/SOD) activity in brain tissue, the number of apoptotic embryonic cerebral cortex neurons using a TUNEL assay, and necrotic cells using HE staining. Examination of p53 and caspase 3 expression was done by immunohistochemistry. Data were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan’s test. Results: Increased activity of cerebral ROS characterised by significant elevation of the MDA level (P < 0.05), decreased SOD (P < 0.01), increased p53 and caspase 3 expression, and cerebral cortical neuron death either by necrosis or apoptosis (P < 0.05) were found. At the low dose carbofuran increased expression of p53, caspase 3, and apoptosis. At the high dose it increased levels of MDA and necrosis. Conclusion: Increased expression of p53 and caspase 3 and apoptosis indicated that carbofuran may cause apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway. The increased apoptosis grants an opportunity to prevent and treat the effect of ROS due to gestational carbofuran exposure.
Radica Živković Zarić, Marijana Stanojević Pirković and Nedim Hamzagić
The compound cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin) is the most widely used anticancer drug, but due to its serious side effects (including gastrointestinal symptoms, renal tubular injury, neuromuscular complications, and ototoxicity), clinical applications of cisplatin are limited. Therefore, these limitations have provided an encouragement for further research into other transition metal complexes, with an aim to overcome the disadvantages related with cisplatin therapy. In the search for effective complexes that can be targeted against tumor cells, many research groups synthesized various ruthenium( II) complexes with different ligands. Also, newly synthesized ruthenium(II) complexes showed selective anticancer activity against different types of cancer cells. Activity of ruthenium(II) complexes in some cases was even higher than that of cisplatin against the same cells. Precise mechanism of action of ruthenium(II) complexes is not fully understood. The different examples mentioned in this review showed that ruthenium(II) complexes decreased viability of cancer cells by induction of apoptosis and/or by cell cycle arrest which implies their different mechanism of action against different types of cancer cells.
Agnieszka Pluta, Tadeusz Robak, Kamil Brzozowski, Barbara Cebula-Obrzut, Agata Majchrzak, Piotr Pluta, Anna Szmigielska-Kapłon, Olga Grzybowska-Izydorczyk, Magdalena Czemerska, Piotr Stelmach, Piotr Smolewski and Agnieszka Wierzbowska
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous, highly malignant neoplasm. Apoptosis is a complex process executed by caspases and suppressed by the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family. Neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP), IAP’s member, may play an exceptional role in the mechanisms of tumors’ resistance to chemotherapy. The aims of the study were to assess the expression of NAIP in leukemic blasts of AML patients using flow cytometry and to evaluate its influence on disease outcome. NAIP expression was found in 106 out of 108 patients. A higher complete response rate was associated with a low expression of NAIP, age < 60 yo, and white blood cell count < 20 G/L (p = 0.009, p = 0.033, and p = 0.076, respectively) in univariate analyses and a low NAIP expression and age < 60 yo (p = 0.025 and p = 0.013, respectively) in multivariate analyses. Longer overall survival (OS) in the univariate analysis was influenced by a low NAIP expression, age < 60 yo, and intensive chemotherapy (p = 0.033, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). In the intensively treated group, better OS was observed in patients with age < 60 yo, de novo AML, and a low NAIP expression (p = 0.03, p = 0.024, and p = 0.07, respectively). In multivariate analysis, longer OS was associated with age < 60 yo (p = 0.009) and de novo AML (p = 0.007). In conclusion, we suggest that NAIP might play an adverse role in response to chemotherapy.
Ludwik Jasinski, Patrycja Chylinska-Wrzos, Marta Lis-Sochocka, Ewelina Wawryk-Gawda and Barbara Jodlowska-Jedrych
The therapeutic effects of the immunosuppressive agent, cladribine, have been demonstrated by its toxicity to cells. However, its effects on healthy cells of the body is poorly understood. The aim of study was, hence, to, firstly, evaluate the morphology of the endocrine and exocrine pancreas after the administration of cladribine according to the "leukemic" schema, and, secondly, to assess its impact on the intensity of apoptosis. The experiment was carried out on female Wistar rats which were placed within the control group KA, and the experimental groups: A and A-bis. In the experimental groups, Cladribine was administered according to the cycle used to treat human hairy cell leukemia. In group A, the material was taken 24 hours after administration of the last dose of the drug, while in group A-bis, this was done after a 4 weeks break. The reaction was assessed to be average in 80% of all cells in group A, and in 64% of all acinar cells in group KA, while in group A-bis, the majority of the exocrine cells demonstrated a lack of immunohistochemical response (72%). Moreover, most endocrine cells (60%) in group A-bis revealed a strong reaction, while in Group A, the corresponding figure is a little over 34%. A comparison of the severity of the caspase 3 expression in both the exocrine and endocrine pancreas showed significant differentiation results between the group KA and group A-bis, and between group A and A-bis (p < 0.0001). In can be concluded that endocrine cells are more sensitive to cladribine than are exocrine cells.