Małgorzata Stachowicz, Katarzyna Milde and Marcin Janik
Anaerobic endurance of young swimmers aged 12 years
Study aim: To assess the effects of swimming training on anaerobic endurance, swimming velocity and chest girth in children aged 12 years.
Material and methods: Two groups of children aged 12 years were studied. Group S (14 boys and 6 girls) training swimming at a sport-oriented school 3 days a week, 90 min per session, and Group R (6 boys and 6 girls) engaged in competitive swimming for 4 years. Children from Group S were subjected twice (in September and in February) to a swimming test consisting of 6 bouts of swimming the 12.5-m distance, spaced by 30-s intermissions. Mean and maximum swimming velocities in the entire test were recorded together with their ratio (Performance Index, PI). In children from Group R the swimming velocity at one 12.5-distance was recorded.
Results: Apart from somatic indices, significant increases over the 5-month training period were noted in mean swimming velocity in boys and girls (p<0.001) and in maximum velocity in boys (p<0.01). No significant changes were noted in the performance index or in heart rate.
Conclusions: Performance index as a measure of anaerobic endurance may serve as a useful tool in assessing the adaptive performance changes in young swimmers.
Anna Ogonowska, Elżbieta Hübner-Woźniak, Andrzej Kosmol and Wilhelm Gromisz
Anaerobic capacity of upper extremity muscles of male and female swimmers
Study aim: To assess the anaerobic capacity of upper extremity muscles of male and female swimmers by applying two exercise tests.
Material and methods: Male and female swimmers (n = 9 and 6, respectively), aged 19 - 23 years and having training experience of over 10 years, were subjected to two tests: 30-s Wingate for upper extremities and semitethered swimming test. The following variables were determined: body fat content (from 4 skinfolds), maximum power output, heart rate (HR) and lactate (LA) concentration in blood.
Results: Relative power outputs in the Wingate test and swimming force in semi-tethered swimming test (maximum and mean) were significantly (p<0.001) higher in male than in the female swimmers. Maximum LA concentrations were higher in male than in female swimmers, but maximum LA values related to relative power output were in both genders alike. Maximum force produced in the semi-tethered swimming test was strongly (r = 0.765; p<0.001) correlated with maximum relative power output in the Wingate test.
Conclusions: Both tests may be interchangeably applied to determine the anaerobic capacity of upper extremity muscles in swimmers.
Ryszard Zarzeczny, Mariusz Kuberski, Agnieszka Deska, Dorota Zarzeczna, Katarzyna Rydz, Anna Lewandowska, Tomasz Bałchanowski and Janusz Bosiacki
Effects of 8-week training on aerobic capacity and swimming performance of boys aged 12 years
Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years.
Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n = 10) or free style (FS; n = 13). In all boys maximal oxygen uptake (O2max) was determined, and the CS and FS groups were subjected to 6 tests: swimming at 50 and 400 m distances (time recorded) and to 12-min swimming (distance recorded), all by free and classical styles pre- and post-training. From swimming times at 50 and 400 m distances the so-called critical swimming speed (CSS) was computed: CSS = (400 - 50) / (t400 - t50).
Results: No training-induced improvement in O2max was noted in any group. Yet, boys subjected to classical style training significantly (p<0.05) improved their free-style swimming velocity at CSS and at the 400-m distance by about 6%, and their heart rate following the 12-min test in classical style decreased by nearly 16% (p<0.001) compared with the pre-training values.
Conclusions: The 8-week training in given swimming style does not negatively affect the performance in other style than the trained one. This may be of importance in competitive training.