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Open access

Anna Kwaśna, Stefan Szczepan, Aleksandra Spirydowicz and Krystyna Zatoń

Abstract

Introduction: Music motivates, relaxes and stimulates action and is one factor which enhances the pleasure that people feel from a given movement. Thus, from a psychophysical point of view, listening to music is an important aspect in sport and recreation. With this in mind, the aim of the study was to determine any changes in the participants’ psychophysical sphere which resulted from listening to music while swimming. The psychophysical sphere was expressed in relation to the Borg RPE scale (Rating of Perceived Exertion) as well as the Rejeski and Gauvin Exercise-Induced Feeling Inventory (EFI) scale of emotional states.

Material and methods: The participants in the study were not professional swimmers (n = 10). The experiment consisted of two trials in which participants performed the Swimming Cooper test. During the first trial there was no music transmitted while in the second trial specifically selected music was played as the participants swam.

Results: An ANOVA variance analysis (α = 0.05) showed statistically significant differences in the RPE scale (p = 0.04) and across all sensations on the EFI scale (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001).

Conclusions: Listening to music while swimming has a significant impact on the human psychophysical sphere and is expressed by a perceived exertion scale and the scale of emotional states.

Respondents paid less attention to the discomfort of physical exertion associated with exercise while listening to music. The rating of their emotional states, including positive engagement, revitalization and tranquility considerably increased though the physical exhaustion measures were significantly lower.

Open access

Ludwika Kosińska and Marek Rejman

Abstract

This paper describes the concept of didactic communication and verifies the course of teaching selected disciplines of water based recreation, i.e. swimming (at the standard technique level), handling a sailing boat whilst undertaking simple manoeuvres, and the basics of diving. At the same time, research in the area of experiments conducted in the field of teaching methods of these disciplines was reviewed in terms of teaching effectiveness, as well as the health and safety of the participants, and ways of communicating while in, on and under the water. Communication between an instructor and a student in any environment which is different from the norm, is difficult owing to its specificity. Additionally, teaching skills on, in or under water requires strict observance of safety rules. Lack of student’s readiness to act in a different water environment, be that based on anxiety or fear, may interfere with or, even prevent didactic communication. Consequently, the effectiveness of teaching decreases. The aim of this work is to search for innovative forms of information transfer that will enable a permanent change in the student’s behaviour, especially when acting in a difficult environment – on the water, in the water and under the water. There are premises to believe that immediate verbal instruction and emphasising the metalinguistic function in it should improve the quality and effectiveness of the process of teaching activities in various water based environments.