This paper reports on findings of a pilot research to determine the level of swimming ability of children with weak respiratory system aged between 10 - 11 years, who attended special classes for asthmatics. Swimming ability was assessed by 25 m free style swimming test. The results of asthmatics were compared with healthy peers (Benčuriková 2006; Kováčová 2010; Labudová 2011). The results confirmed that the level of swimming capability of asthmatic children, despite their handicap, is significantly higher than their healthy peers.
The text deals with neurophysiological and kinesiological developmental principles associated with the early development of young children as the fundamental prerequisites for physical education in the aquatic environment. Swimming in infancy and early childhood using the developmental principles and understanding of individual variability represent enormous potential to create a positive attitude of the child to exercise in aquatic environments. We believe that the experience with these basic tasks can play a key role in future exercise habits and swimming literacy of the individual. Parents attending infant swimming courses led by an instructor acquire practical skills and deeper insight into principles of their child's motor learning. All activities in the aquatic environment at an early age should allow transfer of child’s experiences to preswimming education and result in full swimming literacy.
Oľga Kyselovičová, Jana Labudová, Erika Zemková, Dušana Čierna and Michal Jeleň
Synchronized swimming and aerobic gymnastics are competitive sports that have grown in popularity throughout the Slovakia and around the world. Unfortunately, a paucity of research exists either on anthropometric and physiological characteristics or physical benefits of these sports. The present study examined anthropometric and cardiovascular characteristics of control group - CO (n = 10) in comparison to competitive synchronized swimmers - SS (n = 11) and aerobic gymnasts - AG (n = 10) between the ages of 13 and 25 years. The physical measures were assessed per the protocols in the following order: height (BH), weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), and % body fat (% BF). The measurements of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and maximum heart rate (HRmax) were examined by spiroergometry via COSMED K4b2. All measurements were collected by trained data collection staff. An analysis of variance (Kruskal - Wallis) with a Mann-Whitney U test for the significant effect among the three groups showed that aerobic gymnasts were taller than synchronized swimmers and control group (p = .02). Training and conditioning requirements specific for the two athletic groups caused that AG and SS have higher level of VO2max (p = .02) and VO2max.kg-1 (p = .00), and also lower level of the body weight (p= .01), BMI (p = .01) and the % BF (p = .00). These findings confirm that selected parameters are considered the bases for success in elite sports. This information could also help to design specific training and evaluate the adaptation to training stimuli with the aim to maximize sport performance.