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Open access

Anna Ogonowska-Słodownik, Eliza Maria Bober and Bartosz Molik


Introduction: Physical activity is one of the basic elements that affect functional performance and body composition. The age may result in adverse changes in these parameters. The study aimed to compare the functional fitness and body composition in physically active women over 60 years old in different age groups and determine the relationship between those two components.

Material and methods: The study participants attended gymnastic classes at the University of Third Age of Warsaw University of Technology. A total of 39 women were examined in three age categories - 60-64 years (13 women), 65-69 years (13 women), 70-74 years (13 women). The study used the Senior Fitness Test (SFT) to assess functional fitness. Body composition was tested using a device Tanita BC 420.

Results: Statistical analysis showed no statistically significant (p≤0.05) differences in functional fitness and body composition between women of different age groups. A statistically significant negative correlation was found for Back Scratch test with BMI and percentage of body fat and a positive with muscle mass. Additionally, 8-ft up-and-go test positively correlated with BMI and percentage of body fat and negatively with muscle mass.

Conclusions: Regular physical activity allows to maintain the level of functional fitness in older women. Element requiring additional commitment are flexibility exercises. The study confirmed the relationship between body composition and functional fitness of older women.

Open access

Valentina Hlebec


Theory. Social homecare is important for older people, as it enables them to remain in their own homes during worsening health, thus relieving the burden on institutional facilities such as homes for the elderly or nursing homes and hospitals.

Method. A representative survey of social homecare users was employed to assess determinants of the scope of social homecare in Slovenia. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate determinants defined by Andersen’s behavioral model that affect the scope of social homecare.

Results. As expected, need (Functional impairment B = .378, P = 0.000) was the most important explanatory component, followed by availability of informal care network (Lives alone B = -.136, P = 0.000; Has children B = - .142; P = 0.000) and other contextual factors such as total costs of the services (B = -.075; P = 0.003) and temporal availability of services (B=-.075, P=0.012). The model explained 18% of variability in the scope of social homecare.

Conclusion. This study showed that data on the individual level, as opposed to data on an aggregated level, show different determinants of social homecare utilization. Moreover, the results showed that social homecare is especially important in two circumstances: when older people have a high level of need and when they do not have access to informal care networks. Contextual factors had a moderate effect on the scope of social homecare, which shows universal access to the latter at the individual level.

Open access

Valentina Hlebec

Kontekstualni Dejavniki Uporabe Oskrbe Na Domu V Sloveniji

Uvod: Andersenov behavioralni model za pojasnjevanje uporabe storitev zdravstvenega sistema se uporablja tudi za pojasnjevanje uporabe storitev oskrbe na domu in drugih storitev oskrbe, ki so v domeni skupnosti. V model so vključeni dispozicijski in kontekstualni dejavniki (družinski in skupnostni) ter potreba po storitvah. V prispevku bomo obravnavali skupnostne kontekstualne dejavnike in njihov vpliv na uporabo storitev oskrbe na domu.

Metode: V prispevku je uporabljena multipla klasifikacijska analiza na ravni občin. Odvisna spremenljivka je število uporabnikov oskrbe na domu glede na 1.000 prebivalcev v občini (oboje 65+). V model je vključenih več kontekstualnih spremenljivk, ki opisujejo značilnosti lokalnih skupnosti (občin) in prebivalcev.

Rezultati: Kontekstualni dejavniki pojasnjujejo 13% variabilnosti števila uporabnikov oskrbe na domu. Uporabnikov je sorazmerno več v urbanih občinah, občinah z manjšo gostoto prebivalstva, v občinah z večjim deležem študentov in delovno aktivnih prebivalcev. Organizacijski dejavniki (cena storitev za uporabnika in ponudba oskrbe ob popoldnevih, koncih tedna in ob praznikih) nimajo statistično značilnega vpliva na število uporabnikov oskrbe na domu, prav tako ne delež prejemnikov denarnih socialnih pomoči.

Zaključek: Raziskava uporabe oskrbe na domu na sekundarnih agregiranih podatkih na ravni občin je dala zanimive, a omejene rezultate. Nepričakovane in statistično neznačilne povezave je mogoče pripisati sorazmerni novosti programa oskrbe na domu. Izpostavljamo tudi nujnost raziskovanja oskrbe na domu na individualni ravni oziroma ravni uporabnikov.

Open access

Valentina Hlebec, Andrej Srakar and Boris Majcen



Population ageing has significant effects on societies. The organization of care for dependent old people is one of the key issues for ageing societies. The majority of care for homebound dependent old people in Slovenia is still performed by informal carers, even though the use of formal services has been increasing over the last 20 years. The proportion and characteristics of people with unmet needs are important for the development of long term care social policy.


The SHARE (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe) survey was used to assess the determinants of care arrangements and of unmet needs of the aging population in Slovenia. Multinomial regression analysis was used to evaluate individual and contextual determinants of care arrangements and unmet needs.


The proportion of older people with unmet needs is 4%. As expected, “needs” (Functional impairment OR=4.89, P=0.000, Depression OR=2.59, P=0.001) were the most important determinant, followed by the predisposing factor “age” (age OR 1.15, P=0.000) and two enabling factors, namely:“community setting and “availability of informal care within household” (Urban areas OR=.47, P=0.021; Household size 3+ OR=2.11, P=0.030).


This study showed that there are a proportion of older people in Slovenia with severe needs for care, which are being unmet. As shown by the importance of enabling factors, social policy should encourage the development of formal services in rural areas and elaborate policy measures for informal carers.