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Impact of the Corporate Governance Reform on the Management Effectiveness of State-Owned Enterprises in Lithuania in 2012–2014

Abstract

Following previous research on the management efficiency of the state-owned enterprises (SOEs) in Lithuania1, this paper extends the discussion via analysis of the broader period of time not only focusing on 1 year caption (2012), but trying to identify the impacts (if any) of the corporate governance reform of the SOEs in Lithuania looking at the data of 2012-2014. To ensure the consistency and comparability of the results, the theoretical background is sought to be maintained as similar as in the previous papers, following the paradigms of (post) new public management, principle-agent theory, corporate governance guidelines established by such international organisations as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Bank, the International Monetary fund and others. In addition to the quantitative part of the analysis (quantitative analysis of the relationship between management of SOEs and results of its operations as measured by Return on Equity (ROE)), case studies representing biggest Lithuanian SOEs and - accordingly - 3 main sectors Lithuanian SOEs are acting in are analysed to understand if and what (i) actual changes of the corporate governance principles are impacting the management effectiveness of SOEs, as well as (ii) what are the limiting factors (if any) reducing the positive effects of the changes being introduced with the new reform. For both parts of the analysis (quantitative and case studies) we focus on (i) the main elements of corporate governance being introduced by the SOE reform and (ii) the relations of the SOEs and the shareholder of theirs (Government and the society). By applying the above described approach, the paper seeks to (i) understand not only the effects of corporate governance on management and performance of SOEs per se, but also include the time dimension with the purpose to understand (confirm) if previous findings (e.g., the fact that board independence and transparency were the key factors influencing SOEs management efficiency in 2012) are sufficiently sustainable outcomes of the reform, which would still be valid in the 3 year period (2012-2014), as well as (ii) explain the most relevant (in terms of impact on management effectiveness) corporate governance principles that should be applied or be promoted stronger in Lithuanian SOEs.

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Nationality Diversity of Bank Boards

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to carry out a comparative study for nationality diversity in bank boards. The study covers practices of board diversity of nine commercial banks. The data are compared for subsidiary banks in Bulgaria and their parent banks from the home country. The study defines a high degree of nationality diversity in subsidiary banks. The Bulgarian banks have a higher number of foreign members on boards compared to their parent banks. The good practices on board diversity in Bulgarian banks are a consequence of their subordination in European financial conglomerates and are aimed to reduce agent conflicts.

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Bold vision: Gender diversity stuck in transition

Abstract

Canada is often put forward as an example of forward thinking on inclusiveness and gender balance. However, for the last 30 years, while gender diversity progress has been made within Canadian government agencies, commissions and boards (ABCs), the private sector continues to lag behind, stuck trying to break through the barrier of 18-22% females on Boards. This occurs while mounting empirical evidence clearly indicates that it is not just the right thing to do, it is the smart thing to do. This paper looks at where progressive government change has generated results and potential avenues necessary to make gender equality a reality within both the government and private sector beyond 2018. The author reviews the methods used by the Canadian government to achieve gender parity, ending with some insights on how the private sector could implement gender parity without the use of quotas.

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Best practice in bank corporate governance: The case of Islamic banks

Abstract

Islamic banks are growing rapidly with annual growth rates of 17.6% between 2009 to 2013 and 19.7% from 2014 to date. This level of growth is projected to continue into the future. Islamic banks now operate in more than 75 countries with a value of approximately $920 trillion of bank assets. Islamic banks are increasingly being seen as good long-term value propositions and are serving both Muslim and non-Muslim customers across international markets. Despite the rapid growth in Islamic finance, the underpinning corporate governance rules and regulations are at an embryonic stage of development with little attention having been paid to them. The purpose of this paper is to help fill that gap by exploring a conceptual model of corporate governance for Islamic banks based on both Islamic finance principles while fused with elements of corporate governance standards from Western theories and codes, primarily the UK, and thereby ensure that good governance is in place in Islamic banks. The paper links the predominant corporate governance theories of Principal/Agent, Stakeholder and Stewardship with practice based corporate governance codes and explores the potential of applying stewardship theory to Islamic banks. Islamic principles emphasis is on real assets rather than debt as is the case in Western Banks and as a consequence this paper offers the conclusion that the more prudent approach to banking used by Islamic banks could be used as a model for Western banks and thereby deliver a more sustainable future and maintain confidence in banks and substitute for the need for taxpayer support, such as the guaranteed deposit scheme, which acts as a backstop under the Western approach.

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Corporate Governance for A.S.E. Listed Firms

Abstract

The present paper focuses on the level of compliance and application of corporate governance from the corporations listed in the Athens Stock Exchange (A.S.E.) and attempts to highlight improvements from the adoption of best practices suggested by corporate governance recent trends worldwide. In order for the research to be conducted, a series of qualitative and quantitative variables were used, as derived from the financial statements of 162 public companies. A more extensive analysis regarding the level of compliance with corporate governance was conducted in 25 companies with the highest and 25 corporations with the lowest score, whose classification in these positions was the result of a rating system that was created for this purpose.

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Corporate Governance of Banks in Poland and Slovenia

Abstract

This paper focuses on the analysis of the characteristics of corporate governance in banks in Poland and Slovenia between 2005 and 2013. It studies the impact of corporate governance in these banks on their performance. The results of our research show that Slovenia achieved lower average scores for the variables and indicators related to the transparency of corporate governance than Poland. The density of banks with the highest corporate governance index scores was higher in Poland than in Slovenia. When examining the impact of corporate governance on bank performance as measured with net interest income, the regression analysis showed that its impact is positive in both countries and that it is statistically significant in Slovenia.

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Is Corporate Governance Policy a New Paradigm for Social Responsibility? A Research Agenda from Ghana

Abstract

Social responsibility has received great authorial comments on making business commitments compensatory for corporate profits and/or rent-seeking in host communities. Unfortunately, that voice remains silent on the fundamental component of business responsibility and its improvement, i.e., governance policy. The paper, consequently, recommends a corporate policy for equitable and compensatory corporate citizenship in local communities. To justify the proposition, three objectives are established: proof that social responsibilities can improve with a governance policy, that authoritative policy represents a crucial change in social initiatives execution, and that policy absence incentivises implementation ineffectiveness and commitments paucity. Triangulation of interviews and survey data through SPSS analysis shows statistically significant coefficients validating the claim that corporate governance policy is an enrichment and facilitator of social responsibilities. The proposed policy framework will not only deliver competitive, scientific, objective, and excellent services but also represent a novel and future academic investigation.

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Survey On Competence and Administration of Supervisory Board Activities in German Stock-Listed Companies

Abstract

According to the agency theory (Jensen & Meckling 1976), it is expected that there exists a positive relationship between corporate governance and company performance which is also generally assumed in recent research (Dignam & Galanis 2016). This relationship is investigated in the study performed by the author of this paper. Two different approaches were chosen in parallel: (1) quantitative data analysis, based on financial figures and corporate governance variables, and (2) a survey of supervisory board members of listed German companies. This paper is about the results of structured interviews with 30 supervisory board members. The survey confirms that corporate governance regulations have an important influence on the administration of supervisory board activities and on board competence. Many supervisory board members stated that the German Corporate Governance Codex leads to extended meeting time to fulfil regulatory requirements, more data requirements to identify and estimate risk issues and to rising risk awareness. The interview results converge with the results from the multivariate analysis.

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Corporate Governance and Human Resource Management in Nigeria’s Downstream Petroleum Sector

Abstract

The emergence of a ‘new world economy’ makes it imperative for corporate entities to adjust their corporate values, practices and internal processes. This paper explored the interrelatedness of selected corporate governance practices and human resource management outcomes. The paper relied on established corporate management theories as a platform for empirical consideration of selected issues relative to four established players in Nigeria’s downstream petroleum sector. A descriptive method was adopted and data was collected via a survey of 112 respondents. Contextual arguments were captured to achieve a robust appreciation of issues affecting individual participation and operations of corporate entities. The study found that there is a significant relationship between corporate governance practices and human resource management outcomes. Requisite conclusions and recommendations were provided in the light of empirical and theoretical findings.

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Ownership and Control in Large Eastern European Companies

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to determine if the ownership structure of large Central Eastern-European companies, can influence the performance of the companies via better monitoring and control of managers done by individual blockholders. We use a sample of 497 large private and public CEE companies and analyze influence of large individual type of blockholders on performance over the period 2004-2013. We use ROA as a proxy for performance, firm, country characteristics and ownership indicators in a fixed-effect panel model. Our estimates indicate that only state and foreign ownership can influence performance while individual and widely held ownership do not influence performance in large CEE companies. On average, state controlled companies tend to underperform while foreign ownership seems to be beneficial for performance. This suggests that ownership can be used as a substitute for missing good governance institutions, in such a specific environment as CEE countries.

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