Introducing a well-designed system of corporate governance is considered an effective tool to ensure the stability and resilience of a banking system. It was in 2006 when Bangladesh initiated its first corporate governance code (CG code). Despite trying to meet the code of enhancing the internal monitoring mechanisms and transparency in governance, it is apparent that the quality in bank credit portfolios continuously deteriorated. This paper aims to empirically analyze the impact of adopting the CG code on performance for eight years (2010–2017) of 21 major commercial banks of Bangladesh. In this case study, we suggest that the CG code may have given the Bangladeshi commercial banks an ill-incentive for the reduction of executive directors under the pressure of meeting a guideline to increase the ratio of independent directors. This incentive structure had a negative impact on bank performance during the period. Another finding is that the fundamental structure of ownership and control by sponsor directors remained unchanged during the period. This structure of maintaining the control of power by a group with its vested interest may have hindered the effectiveness of the CG code in Bangladesh. We suggest that the agenda of CG practices should go together with a policy for mitigating a potential bias under the ownership concentration because any attempt of adopting codified CG practices would be futile under the fundamental structure in Bangladesh.
Theognosia Tellidou, Chris Grose, Persefoni Polychronidou, Theodore Kargidis and Stergios Anatolitis
The present paper focuses on the level of compliance and application of corporate governance from the corporations listed in the Athens Stock Exchange (A.S.E.) and attempts to highlight improvements from the adoption of best practices suggested by corporate governance recent trends worldwide. In order for the research to be conducted, a series of qualitative and quantitative variables were used, as derived from the financial statements of 162 public companies. A more extensive analysis regarding the level of compliance with corporate governance was conducted in 25 companies with the highest and 25 corporations with the lowest score, whose classification in these positions was the result of a rating system that was created for this purpose.
Podizanjem kvaliteta korporativnog upravljanja povećava se vrijednost preduzeća na tržištu, omogućuje korištenje svih oblika finansiranja: domaćeg i međunarodnog, javnog i privatnog, a samim tim jača i njihov dugoročni prosperitet. Svrha ovog rada je istraživanje internet transparentnosti u bankama i osiguravajućim društvima Bosne i Hercegovine i uočavanje razlika između sektora banaka i sektora osiguravajućih društava u pogledu stepena transparentnosti pojedinih oblasti iz domena korporativnog upravljanja. Podaci potrebni za istraživanje su dobijeni pregledanjem internet stranica posmatranih subjekata. Rezultati diskriminacione analize su pokazali da postoji razlika u internet transparentnosti između banaka i osiguravajućih društava.
Olabode A. Oyewunmi, Kenneth S. Adeyemi and Olaleke O. Ogunnaike
The emergence of a ‘new world economy’ makes it imperative for corporate entities to adjust their corporate values, practices and internal processes. This paper explored the interrelatedness of selected corporate governance practices and human resource management outcomes. The paper relied on established corporate management theories as a platform for empirical consideration of selected issues relative to four established players in Nigeria’s downstream petroleum sector. A descriptive method was adopted and data was collected via a survey of 112 respondents. Contextual arguments were captured to achieve a robust appreciation of issues affecting individual participation and operations of corporate entities. The study found that there is a significant relationship between corporate governance practices and human resource management outcomes. Requisite conclusions and recommendations were provided in the light of empirical and theoretical findings.
This research attempts to analyze the relationship between agency, control and corporate governance attributes for a sample of 267 firms listed on the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) from 2005 to 2008. The results show that a) Pakistani listed firms are facing high agency costs problems in contrast to established markets. b) Factors are observed important to having strong effect on mitigating agency costs levels: corporate dividend policy, degree of board independence, and institutional ownership. c) Corporate governance factors reduce discretionary expenditure ratio, increase assets utilization ratio and free cash flow ratio. d) Control variables increases the asset utilization ratio and decreases the free cash flow and increases the managers’ performance (Tobin’s Q ratio). e) Ownership attributes regulate free cash flow and decrease the discretionary expenditure ratio. The outcomes of this research lead to the proposed use of recommended governance, control and ownership attributes to overcome agency problems and a sound policy for better corporate governance (better management of agency cost issues) for listed firms.
Mihaela Onofrei, Bogdan-Narcis Firtescu and Paula-Andreea Terinte
The aim of the paper is to find if the corporative governance characteristics have an impact on bank performance. We conducted an OLS regression on panel data (fixed, random effects and first-difference). We used data from Romanian and Bulgarian commercial banks as reported by Bureau van Dijk database and categorical variables manually collected by analyzing the annual reports of the banks from our sample. These latest dummy variables reflect the corporative governance component for our model. The data used in our paper is from 2003 to 2015 period. Our results showed that there are some statistically significant effects of our categorical variables on bank profitability in both countries, so, the good practice of corporate should be applied for obtaining higher bank’s performance.
The aim of this paper is to determine if the ownership structure of large Central Eastern-European companies, can influence the performance of the companies via better monitoring and control of managers done by individual blockholders. We use a sample of 497 large private and public CEE companies and analyze influence of large individual type of blockholders on performance over the period 2004-2013. We use ROA as a proxy for performance, firm, country characteristics and ownership indicators in a fixed-effect panel model. Our estimates indicate that only state and foreign ownership can influence performance while individual and widely held ownership do not influence performance in large CEE companies. On average, state controlled companies tend to underperform while foreign ownership seems to be beneficial for performance. This suggests that ownership can be used as a substitute for missing good governance institutions, in such a specific environment as CEE countries.
Zuzana Brinčíková, Marek Kálovec, Colin W. Lawson and Eva Muchová
Fourteen Slovak state-owned enterprises were studied, using published data and structured interviews with management. A novel methodology is used to assess SOE autonomy, effectiveness, accountability and governance. Variations in operating conditions reflect different government objectives and different ownership models. Mixed state-private firms performed more like competitive firms than did wholly state-owned SOEs. This information was fed into an assessment of Slovak SOEs’ compliance with the 2015 OECD Guidelines on SOE Corporate Governance. There are many differences between Slovak practice and the Guidelines. This may reflect a choice to favour government interests, rather than the OECD’s inclusion of a wider group of stakeholders. One cost is foregone efficiency gains. Another is the perception that the present highly opaque governance system hides corruption.