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Open access

Barbara Raczyńska, Łukasz Zubik and Michał Jeliński

Diabetes Vs. Physical Exercise

Diabetes is a disease affecting people of all races in the world, it can appear at any age. It is considered to be social disease due to the incidence and complications. It is a disease of complex etiology, classified as a metabolic disease with chronic hyperglycemia. It requires intensive hypoglicemizing therapy. There are two types of diabetes: type I and type II with different etiologies and varied clinical picture.

In the case of prolonged illness serious complications develop, from which, however, the sick may be saved, on condition of the patient's absolute submission to the rigors of treatment. It is possible to live an active life and even practice sports. Extremely important in this case is the correct blood glucose, providing for adjusted glucose homeostasis, which is promoted by physical activity. Physical exercise can be an important therapeutic agent in treating diabetes, provided the criteria of its physiological tolerance are determined. It is vital that an individual approach to the patient is made, associated with the duration of the disease and existing complications. Patient education in monitoring patients' glucose levels is important, i.e. the efficiency in the implementation of individual insulin therapy and hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia self-prevention during and after physical exercise. Patients who decide to practice sport should find the optimal way to control exercise, and diet during and after exercise, then the sporting success is possible.

Open access

Rositsa V. Sandeva, Stanislava M. Mihaylova, Gergana N. Sandeva, Katya Y. Trifonova and Ruska D. Popova-Katsarova


In Europe, as well as in Bulgaria, consumption of soft drinks and confectionery has increased during the last three decades and is partly responsible for the epidemic-like increase in obesity. These foods, originally sweetened by sucrose, are now sweetened by other caloric sweeteners such as fructose. In this study we investigated the effect of an eight-week intake of 20% fructose solution on body weight in rats. Two adult rat groups (aged 120±6 days) of Wistar line were studied: a Control group (C; n=10; 5 male and 5 female rats) received water and standard rodent chow, and a Fructose group (F; n=12; 6 male and 6 female rats) who received 20% fructose-in-drinking-water solution and regular rodent chow. All animals were weighed and measured (nose to anus length), and the Lee index (equivalent of BMI in rats) was calculated. Body fat was also analyzed. As indicators of increased caloric intake of the Fructose group we investigated glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol (total, HDL and LDL) in blood. In conclusion, consumption of fructose solution in rats resulted in increased body weight, length and measured body fat, increased blood glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides in the Fructose group, as compared to the controls.

Open access

Daniela Y. Arabadzhieva, Ara G. Kaprelyan, Zhaneta T. Georgieva, Zdravko D. Slavov and Aleksandra Zh. Tsukeva


The purpose of this study was to analyze the disturbances of glucose, lipid and protein metabolism in acute ischemic stroke patients. A total of 258 patients (mean age 70.9±7.22 years, range 49-92 years) were studied. The following parameters were examined: blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, creatinine, and urea. Data were statistically processed by variation and correlation analysis. Our results demonstrated abnormal values of these laboratory parameters in most patients. The mean concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were higher in females, while these of blood glucose were higher in males, especially in the age group between 76 and 80 years. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was highest between the variables ‘total cholesterol’ and ‘LDL-cholesterol’ (r=0.797) but moderate - between some of the rest variables such as ‘creatinine’ and ‘urea’ (r=0.575); ‘total cholesterol’ and ‘triglycerides’ (r=0.565); ‘total cholesterol’ and ‘urea’ (r=0.428); ‘triglycerides’ and ‘urea’ (r=0.370) and ‘LDL-cholesterol’ and ‘urea’ (r=0.301). In conclusion, the metabolic disorders are relatively common among acute ischemic stroke patients and play a specific role as risk factors for this disease. These parameters should regularly be controlled within the outpatient practice in order to warrant an effective prevention of acute ischemic stroke.