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Open access

Muhammad Adnan, Fakhar Imam, Iffat Shabbir, Zahra Ali and Tayyaba Rahat



Rapid blood glucose estimation is required to prescribe treatments and to make dose adjustments in diabetic patients. However, measuring plasma glucose levels is time consuming. Therefore, the use of glucometers has greatly increased.


To measure the correlation between capillary and venous blood glucose levels.


Seventy patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were enrolled in the present study and informed written consent was obtained from all participants. Demographic characteristics and clinical information was noted. Capillary and venous glucose levels were determined. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21 was used for data analysis.


Mean age of patients was 52 ± 12 years. It included 29% men; 71% women; 9% smokers; and 90% poor. Mean venous glucose was 11.73 ± 4.64 mmol/L and mean capillary glucose 12.57 ± 5.21 mmol/L. These findings demonstrated a significant intermethod mean difference of 0.84 mmol/L (P < 0.001). Inter-glucose difference was not significant at glucose levels near normal. However, it increased gradually with rise in glucose measurements and was significant at elevated glucose levels. Both concordance correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient demonstrated positive correlation and more consistency between glucose estimations. A Bland and Altman plot presented excellent agreement between glucometrically and photometrically determined glucose levels.


A positive correlation coefficient showed strong association between capillary and venous glucose measurements.

Open access

Prangmalee Leurcharusmee, Guy Kositratna, De Q. Tran and Thomas Schricker


Surgical patients commonly develop hyperglycemia secondary to the neuroendocrine stress response. Insulin treatment of hyperglycemia is required to overcome the perioperative catabolic state and acute insulin resistance. Besides its metabolic actions on glucose metabolism, insulin also displays nonmetabolic physiological effects. Preoperative glycemic assessment, maintenance of normoglycemia, and avoidance of glucose variability are paramount to optimize surgical outcomes. This review discusses the basic physiology and effects of insulin as well as practical issues pertaining to its management during the perioperative period.