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Open access

Barbara Raczyńska, Łukasz Zubik and Michał Jeliński

Diabetes Vs. Physical Exercise

Diabetes is a disease affecting people of all races in the world, it can appear at any age. It is considered to be social disease due to the incidence and complications. It is a disease of complex etiology, classified as a metabolic disease with chronic hyperglycemia. It requires intensive hypoglicemizing therapy. There are two types of diabetes: type I and type II with different etiologies and varied clinical picture.

In the case of prolonged illness serious complications develop, from which, however, the sick may be saved, on condition of the patient's absolute submission to the rigors of treatment. It is possible to live an active life and even practice sports. Extremely important in this case is the correct blood glucose, providing for adjusted glucose homeostasis, which is promoted by physical activity. Physical exercise can be an important therapeutic agent in treating diabetes, provided the criteria of its physiological tolerance are determined. It is vital that an individual approach to the patient is made, associated with the duration of the disease and existing complications. Patient education in monitoring patients' glucose levels is important, i.e. the efficiency in the implementation of individual insulin therapy and hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia self-prevention during and after physical exercise. Patients who decide to practice sport should find the optimal way to control exercise, and diet during and after exercise, then the sporting success is possible.

Open access

Muhammad Adnan, Fakhar Imam, Iffat Shabbir, Zahra Ali and Tayyaba Rahat



Rapid blood glucose estimation is required to prescribe treatments and to make dose adjustments in diabetic patients. However, measuring plasma glucose levels is time consuming. Therefore, the use of glucometers has greatly increased.


To measure the correlation between capillary and venous blood glucose levels.


Seventy patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were enrolled in the present study and informed written consent was obtained from all participants. Demographic characteristics and clinical information was noted. Capillary and venous glucose levels were determined. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21 was used for data analysis.


Mean age of patients was 52 ± 12 years. It included 29% men; 71% women; 9% smokers; and 90% poor. Mean venous glucose was 11.73 ± 4.64 mmol/L and mean capillary glucose 12.57 ± 5.21 mmol/L. These findings demonstrated a significant intermethod mean difference of 0.84 mmol/L (P < 0.001). Inter-glucose difference was not significant at glucose levels near normal. However, it increased gradually with rise in glucose measurements and was significant at elevated glucose levels. Both concordance correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient demonstrated positive correlation and more consistency between glucose estimations. A Bland and Altman plot presented excellent agreement between glucometrically and photometrically determined glucose levels.


A positive correlation coefficient showed strong association between capillary and venous glucose measurements.

Open access

Kateryna Moshenets


Background and aims: to develop a prognostic mathematical model for risk of microangiopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM). Materials and methods: 62 T1DM patients were divided into 2 groups according to НвА1с level: group 1 (n=18) with НвА1с ≤ 7.0% and group 2 (n=44) with НвА1с > of 7.0%. HbA1c, Cpeptide, blood creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) CKD-EPI, first morning urinary albumin excretion (AU) were determined. Blood glucose levels were conducted by CGMS (Continuous Glucose Monitoring System). All patients were followed for 3 months. Rank correlation method was used. Results: We established the direct correlation between HbA1c the AU level ρ=0.29 (р<0.016) at the beginning and ρ=0.4 (р=0.021) after 3 months. AU level has a direct correlation with blood glucose range, at the beginning ρ=0.51 (р<0.001) and after 3 months ρ=0.48 (р=0.004) visits. We made the mathematical description of this dependence. Each additional unit of blood glucose range is accompanied by increasing an average level AU level by 0.4816 mg/l. Conclusion: our mathematical equation of dependence between AU level and blood glucose range gives the opportunities to predict diabetic kidney disease progression in T1DM patients.

Open access

V. Sloup, I. Jankovská, I. Langrová, M. Štolcová, S. Sloup, S. Nechybová and P. Peřinková


The experiment was conducted on 18 Wistar rats during a six-week period; 12 animals were given zinc lactate (120 mg/rat and week) in feed mixture and 6 control animals were fed a standard mixture for rats (ST-1). Sixteen biochemical parameters were measured from blood (serum) samples: total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), urea (UREA), glucose (GLU), triacylglycerols (TAG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol (CHOL), creatinine (CREAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), uric acid (UA), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and trace elements such as Fe and Zn. When compared to the control group, we found that rats fed zinc lactate had higher concentrations of GLU, UA, UREA, Fe, Mg, Ca, TAG, TP, ALB, and ALP in the blood serum. Contrarily, the concentrations of AST, NEFA, CHOL, CREAT, P, and Zn were higher in the blood serum of control rats. Statistically significant differences between rats fed Zn and the control were found only in the concentrations of GLU, AST, ALP, UA, and P.

Open access

Nahla Al-Bayyari, Nesreen Saadeh, Raed Hailat and Safaa Al-Zeidaneen


Background and aims: Atorvastatin is a member of the drug class known as statins, which used as a lipid-lowering agent. The study aim was to assess the effect of atorvastatin on body weight and blood glucose levels among diabetic and non-diabetic patients.

Material and Methods: A 359 hyperlipidemic Jordanian patients using atorvastatin at least for 1 year were divided into two groups: diabetic (DM) and non-diabetic (NDM). The changes in lipid profile, thyroid function test, blood glucose indices as well as body weight were assessed and compared between both groups.

Results: There was no statistical significant (p > 0.05) difference between means of body weight after treatment among DM (85.74 ± 3.56) and NDM (81.75 ± 1.25) groups. Descriptive statistics and mean comparisons before and after atorvastatin treatment, showed statistical significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences in body weight and total cholesterol among NDM group and in total cholesterol and LDL-Ch among DM group. There was an increase in fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and a decrease in triglycerides among both groups but the difference was not statistically (p > 0.05) significant.

Conclusions: Atorvastatin may increase body weight, fasting blood glucose and HbA1c for diabetic and non-diabetic patients.

Open access

Valentin Nadasan, Gabriella Gabos, Monica Tarcea and Zoltan Abram


Objectives: To assess the prevalence of snacking and to explore the relationship between snacking and several demographic, anthropometric, functional and biochemical factors. Methods: The study included 756 individuals over 18 years of age from Medias, Romania. Demographics and data about snacking were collected by trained volunteers. Height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure were measured with standard equipment according to accepted procedures. Blood glucose and cholesterol were measured by experienced nurses using portable devices. Associations between variables were checked with the Pearson Chi-square test. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to measure the association between binary variables. Results: About half of the subjects in the studied sample reported snacking less than 2 times / week, 34.5% between 3-4 times / week and 14.8% more than 4 times / week. Statistical analysis found that snacking was associated with gender (males being less likely to snack than females), ethnicity (non-Romanians being less likely to snack than Romanian ethnics), marital status of the subjects (not married people being less likely to snack than married people ), systolic blood pressure (people consuming more often snacks being less likely to have high systolic blood pressure values), and blood sugar level (people eating more frequently between meals being more likely to have higher blood glucose levels). Conclusions: Snacking was a widespread eating habit among the study participants and was significantly associated with gender, ethnicity, marital status, systolic blood pressure and blood glucose levels.

Open access

Rositsa V. Sandeva, Stanislava M. Mihaylova, Gergana N. Sandeva, Katya Y. Trifonova and Ruska D. Popova-Katsarova


In Europe, as well as in Bulgaria, consumption of soft drinks and confectionery has increased during the last three decades and is partly responsible for the epidemic-like increase in obesity. These foods, originally sweetened by sucrose, are now sweetened by other caloric sweeteners such as fructose. In this study we investigated the effect of an eight-week intake of 20% fructose solution on body weight in rats. Two adult rat groups (aged 120±6 days) of Wistar line were studied: a Control group (C; n=10; 5 male and 5 female rats) received water and standard rodent chow, and a Fructose group (F; n=12; 6 male and 6 female rats) who received 20% fructose-in-drinking-water solution and regular rodent chow. All animals were weighed and measured (nose to anus length), and the Lee index (equivalent of BMI in rats) was calculated. Body fat was also analyzed. As indicators of increased caloric intake of the Fructose group we investigated glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol (total, HDL and LDL) in blood. In conclusion, consumption of fructose solution in rats resulted in increased body weight, length and measured body fat, increased blood glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides in the Fructose group, as compared to the controls.

Open access

Kamil Asghar Imam, Madiha Sarwar, Usman Wali, Lubna Siddique and Shahida Perveen


Objectives: Diabetes mellitus has been linked with specific morphological and metabolic abnormalities of skeletal muscle in a fiber specific manner. Aim: The present study was designed to compare the contractile functions of slow and fast skeletal muscles in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic male and female Sprague Dawley rats. Material and methods: Thirty healthy Sprague Dawley rats (15 male and 15 female) were divided into two groups and studied after four weeks following diabetes induction. The rats in group I (male diabetic; n = 15) and group II (female diabetic; n = 15) were fed on normal pellet diet and water ad libitum and rendered diabetic by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ 65 mg/kg body weight at the start of study (day 1). At the end of four weeks, the contractile parameters of slow soleus and fast extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were recorded by iWorx advanced animal/human physiology data acquisition unit (AHK/214). Results: At the end of four weeks, the weight of isolated soleus and EDL muscles in the male diabetic rats was significantly higher (p < 0.001) as compared to the female diabetic rats. However, no significant difference was found in any of the contractile functions of isolated soleus and EDL muscles when compared between the male and female diabetic rats. Conclusion: No gender differences exist in the contractile functions of slow and fast skeletal muscles in streptozotocin induced diabetic Sprague Dawley rats.

Open access

M. Woźny, P. Brzuzan, M. Gusiatin, E. Jakimiuk, S. Dobosz and H. Kuźmiński

Influence of zearalenone on selected biochemical parameters in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycoestrogen frequently found in food and animal feed materials all over the world. Despite its hydrophobic character, ZEA is also found in surface and ground waters which suggests an environmental risk for aquatic animals. Knowledge concerning mycotoxin-related mechanisms of toxicity is still incomplete, e.g. little is known about the influence of ZEA exposure on fish. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ZEA on selected biochemical parameters in juvenile rainbow trout after 24, 72, and 168 h of intraperitoneal exposure (10 mg/kg of body weight). The analysis showed a slight tendency towards prolonged blood clotting time and significant iron deficiency in the liver and ovary of exposed animals. However, no differences in aminotransferase (AlaAT, AspAT) activity or glucose levels in fish plasma was observed. The results of this study suggest that although trout exposed to ZEA did not exhibit any distinct symptoms of liver damage, the mycotoxin tested was able interfere with blood coagulation and iron-storage processes.

Open access

Prangmalee Leurcharusmee, Guy Kositratna, De Q. Tran and Thomas Schricker


Surgical patients commonly develop hyperglycemia secondary to the neuroendocrine stress response. Insulin treatment of hyperglycemia is required to overcome the perioperative catabolic state and acute insulin resistance. Besides its metabolic actions on glucose metabolism, insulin also displays nonmetabolic physiological effects. Preoperative glycemic assessment, maintenance of normoglycemia, and avoidance of glucose variability are paramount to optimize surgical outcomes. This review discusses the basic physiology and effects of insulin as well as practical issues pertaining to its management during the perioperative period.