Snow on the Gridiron: A Brief History of Canadian Football
Football is played throughout the far regions of the world. There is no other sport that brings so many people together locally, nationally, and internationally. Football is not, however, a unified sport with shared rules, customs and histories across time and space. In contrast, football is largely a different sport depending on where it is being played. This paper traces the development of Canadian football as a unique sport with strong similarities to and subtle differences from American football, as well as clear distinctions from forms of football played outside of North America.
Czech and Polish Table Tennis Players of Jewish Origin in International Competition (1926-1957)
The beginnings of the 18th century marked the birth of Jewish sport. The most famous athletes of those days were boxers, such as I. Bitton, S. Eklias, B. Aaron, D. Mendoga. Popular sports of this minority group included athletics, fencing and swimming. One of the first sport organizations was the gymnastic society Judische Turnverein Bar Kocha (Berlin - 1896).
Ping-pong as a new game in Europe developed at the turn of the 20th century. Sport and organizational activities in England were covered by two associations: the Ping Pong Association and the Table Tennis Association; they differed, for example, in the regulations used for the game. In 1902, Czeski Sport (a Czech Sport magazine) and Kurier Warszawski (Warsaw's Courier magazine) published first information about this game. In Czech Republic, Ping-pong became popular as early as the first stage of development of this sport worldwide, in 1900-1907. This was confirmed by the Ping-pong clubs and sport competitions. In Poland, the first Ping-pong sections were established in the period 1925-1930. Czechs made their debut in the world championships in London (1926). Poles played for the first time as late as in the 8th world championships in Paris (1933). Competition for individual titles of Czech champions was started in 1927 (Prague) and in 1933 in Poland (Lviv).
In the 1930s, Czechs employed an instructor of Jewish descent from Hungary, Istvan Kelen (world champion in the 1929 mixed games, studied in Prague). He contributed to the medal-winning success of Stanislaw Kolar at the world championships. Jewish players who made history in world table tennis included Trute Kleinowa (Makkabi Brno) - world champion in 1935-1937, who survived imprisonment in the Auschwitz-Birkenau Nazi concentration camp, Alojzy Ehrlich (Hasmonea Lwów), the three-time world vice-champion (1936, 1937, 1939), also survivor of Auschwitz-Birkenau, and Ivan Andreadis (Sparta Praga), nine-time world champion, who was interned during World War II (camp in Kleinstein near Krapkowice).
Table tennis was a sport discipline that was successfully played by female and male players of Jewish origins. They made powerful representations of Austria, Hungary, Romania and Czech Republic and provided the foundation of organizationally strong national federations.
This article starts with a literary review of the conceptual frames through which esport has been labeled academically. It shows how the concept of “electronic” has been taken as the core term for labelingesport, often accompanied by a strong emphasis on “professionalism.” The literary review is followed by the submission of an alternative conceptual frame based on the economic notion of executive ownership, which provides a theoretical grounding for esport as a cultural phenomenon. In accordance with the above, the article concludes with a reframed look at the history of esport and suggests commercial analog gaming (especially Magic: The Gathering) as its point of origin.
The primary aim of this research is to prove that the Kata forms were created for the self-defense of a weaker person against a stronger one. The materials and methods used for this research include a study of literature, old Chinese drawings, practical experience with Monku Jutsu, acupressure point fighting, history, Kata forms, anatomy, and body kinetics, as well as Chinese and modern philosophy.
The most significant result of this study is a new approach to understanding Kata forms, with the most important conclusion being that Kata forms are an art of selfdefense that do not require fingers like iron or a body as hard as a rock in order for this knowledge to be used in a real life situation.
The aim of our study is to show the development of women's rowing and competition, as well as the reasons for its slow spread, taking into account the so called decisive era, the social environment, which, although in various ways, has greatly influenced it all over the world. One of the major research methods for collecting data was document analysis: we used the volumes of Gusztáv Götz's legacy1found in the sports history collection of the Hungarian Rowing Federation, whose spirit we also tried to preserve. In these volumes we found and analysed congressional reports, resolutions made by the national rowing federations, professional articles on rowing and papers on sports medicine. In addition, we studied the relevant literature, namely, studies dealing with the era from sociological, sports sociological and sports historical perspectives. Moreover, via membership in the Traditionalist Committee of the Hungarian Rowing Federation we had the opportunity to meet the great Hungarian female rowing champions of the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, and we prepared structured in-depth interviews with them. Meeting most often with Anna Domonkos1, Ágnes Bán1, Zsuzsanna Rakitay1. The results show that the international rowing society was divided, the social and medical discourse differed from each other in the assessment of women's sports, sports historical traditions varied country by country and international sports politics also played a decisive role in the delay. With the results, our paper is intended to give a more thorough picture of the reasons why women's competition in rowing has expanded so slowly than the previous analyses did.
In the paper, previous conceptions of free time and the various definitions that are connected with it are challenged. The author assumed that the subject might not have free time at his/her disposal, because that time does not concern the subject at all. The subject did not have free time in the past; the subject can neither shape it in the present nor in the future. Free time does not concern him/her at all, because free time as such does not exist at all. We have only to do with occupied and unoccupied time. The first form of time concerns the past and the present. Future time is not occupied both in that sense that it does not exist yet and that it never exists.
Moreover, the author considers the existence, understanding, and possibility of the cognition of time as such. Thus, he rejects various common theories of time. He refers to the Kantian, subjective, “self-related” conception of time and he attempts to strengthen it with the Heideggerian transcendental theory of time. According to the author, it is derived from, among other things, the considerations on being done by some of the ancient philosophers: Anaximander, Pythagoras and his followers, Parmenides, Plato, and Aristotle.
Photographs and film recordings have not been commonly used as source material in sports history research. However, every moment and every movement captured in photographs tell us things that researchers could have seen if they had been on the spot when the picture was taken. I suggest that photos and films can be read in the same way as any sign systems, such as writing or maps. The points of departure for my analysis of movement in photographs and film recordings are kinesthetic empathy and the idea that the meanings of most body movements are established to the extent that they are part of our cultural heritage and contain signs and symbols we can relate to. Furthermore, observations made from these documents can be analyzed with the help of theories from other research fields. Using the methods of dance research, such as Rudolf Laban’s movement analysis, Janet Adshead’s dance performance analysis, Marcel Mauss’s habitus concept, and John Martin’s dance analysis, styles, movement languages, and conventions of exercise and sport in photos and films can be identified. In addition, in accordance with photographic research by Roland Barthes, I will reflect on the fringe conditions of the use of photographs as research material, the kind of opportunities they offer, and the kind of limitations they set for the researcher.
Women's Body Consciousness and Political Ideologies in Finnish Exercise Culture
For over one hundred years, women's gymnastics has been one of the most popular sports in the Nordic countries. In the article, two styles of Finnish women's gymnastics will be studied. Of them, the former one was in use from the beginning of the 1900s, and the latter one from the 1930s on. In the article, it will be analyzed, how each style of gymnastics, with the rhythm and spatiality of its movements, has created a model of how the gymnasts have been in time, and in space. In the same time, by exercising the gymnasts have generated and maintained ideas about the use of space and time in social circumstances, in their normal life. This way, gymnastics has been an institution and a form of activity, which has created and maintained values and norms concerning not only the bodies but the personalities of the gymnasts, as well.
The first part of this study, explored by Ashley Popp, presents an investigation into a relatively unexamined area of physical education: an analysis of a transcultural phenomenon in the history of dance. Data has been collected from primary sources and archival evidence to assess competing ideologies inherent in the transformation of a particular art form. In the analysis of the cultural migration through which belly dance was transferred from the Middle East to the United States, an adaptive reaction to the hegemonic relationships of culture, race, gender, and class has been observed. Beyond performance aesthetics, links have been made between the act of belly dancing and the building of women’s self-esteem, as researched by Chia-Ju Yen. The main purpose of her study was to explore how facial burn patients cope with disfigurement and the unfriendly attitudes of others, and examines the alteration of body image via inspiration provided by the performance of belly dance. This research was conducted from the perspective of an anthropologically thickdescription research method, and a case study was performed using in-depth interviews, including narratives by a woman who had suffered facial injuries. The results of the research showed that through family support, hard work and a decisive and studious personality, the patient was able to cope with the discriminatory attitude of others. The performance of belly dance not only made her emphasize her body, but also enriched her life.