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Snow on the Gridiron: A Brief History of Canadian Football

Snow on the Gridiron: A Brief History of Canadian Football

Football is played throughout the far regions of the world. There is no other sport that brings so many people together locally, nationally, and internationally. Football is not, however, a unified sport with shared rules, customs and histories across time and space. In contrast, football is largely a different sport depending on where it is being played. This paper traces the development of Canadian football as a unique sport with strong similarities to and subtle differences from American football, as well as clear distinctions from forms of football played outside of North America.

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A Note On Chess In 19th Century Turkestan

Abstract

A note by A. Chernevski in the 1877 Shakhmatny Listok described two chess variants played in Samarkand, present-day Uzbekistan. One, the “Bukharan game”, is a slightly modified version of shatranj, similar to Rumi chess as described in Murray’s History of Chess. The other, the “Persian game with a queen” resembles to some extent the Persian chess described in 1846 in the Chess Player’s Chronicle but differs from it in several important aspects. Chernevski’s information, which includes recorded games by native players, is absent from later sources on chess history. A summary of Chernevski’s report is provided, with a discussion of several other historical chess variants, and various errors that have crept into their description in the literature.

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Czech and Polish Table Tennis Players of Jewish Origin in International Competition (1926-1957)

Czech and Polish Table Tennis Players of Jewish Origin in International Competition (1926-1957)

The beginnings of the 18th century marked the birth of Jewish sport. The most famous athletes of those days were boxers, such as I. Bitton, S. Eklias, B. Aaron, D. Mendoga. Popular sports of this minority group included athletics, fencing and swimming. One of the first sport organizations was the gymnastic society Judische Turnverein Bar Kocha (Berlin - 1896).

Ping-pong as a new game in Europe developed at the turn of the 20th century. Sport and organizational activities in England were covered by two associations: the Ping Pong Association and the Table Tennis Association; they differed, for example, in the regulations used for the game. In 1902, Czeski Sport (a Czech Sport magazine) and Kurier Warszawski (Warsaw's Courier magazine) published first information about this game. In Czech Republic, Ping-pong became popular as early as the first stage of development of this sport worldwide, in 1900-1907. This was confirmed by the Ping-pong clubs and sport competitions. In Poland, the first Ping-pong sections were established in the period 1925-1930. Czechs made their debut in the world championships in London (1926). Poles played for the first time as late as in the 8th world championships in Paris (1933). Competition for individual titles of Czech champions was started in 1927 (Prague) and in 1933 in Poland (Lviv).

In the 1930s, Czechs employed an instructor of Jewish descent from Hungary, Istvan Kelen (world champion in the 1929 mixed games, studied in Prague). He contributed to the medal-winning success of Stanislaw Kolar at the world championships. Jewish players who made history in world table tennis included Trute Kleinowa (Makkabi Brno) - world champion in 1935-1937, who survived imprisonment in the Auschwitz-Birkenau Nazi concentration camp, Alojzy Ehrlich (Hasmonea Lwów), the three-time world vice-champion (1936, 1937, 1939), also survivor of Auschwitz-Birkenau, and Ivan Andreadis (Sparta Praga), nine-time world champion, who was interned during World War II (camp in Kleinstein near Krapkowice).

Table tennis was a sport discipline that was successfully played by female and male players of Jewish origins. They made powerful representations of Austria, Hungary, Romania and Czech Republic and provided the foundation of organizationally strong national federations.

Open access
Sports Photography and Historical Development

Summary

Sports photography undoubtedly has a significant place in sports press and publicism. It’s main and primary role is to present sports to the readers as art, which it is. Sport is characterized by dynamic and varied movements, and the main role of sports photography is reflected in the fact that it is in this way that sport shows its essence. Having in mind that photography tells more than a thousand words it sends a clear message to the reader as well to people who are informed about events via sports portals. Sports photography is a multidimensional art for many reasons. When we say “multi”, it primarily refers to a wider range that sports photography has to offer, which means sports photography is not only directed at presenting athletes on the move and the main actors who contribute to achieving the results by their engagement – it also has the role of sports “psychophotography” which is an analysis and capture of the emotional reaction of an athlete after winning or losing from the opposing team.

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Reconsidering Esport: Economics and Executive Ownership

Abstract

This article starts with a literary review of the conceptual frames through which esport has been labeled academically. It shows how the concept of “electronic” has been taken as the core term for labelingesport, often accompanied by a strong emphasis on “professionalism.” The literary review is followed by the submission of an alternative conceptual frame based on the economic notion of executive ownership, which provides a theoretical grounding for esport as a cultural phenomenon. In accordance with the above, the article concludes with a reframed look at the history of esport and suggests commercial analog gaming (especially Magic: The Gathering) as its point of origin.

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Practical Education in Secondary Educational Institutions for Teachers’ Training

Abstract

Between 1950 and 1959, teacher training in secondary schools meant an education to last for four years followed by a specified final exam and a practice period of one year. Trainee teachers were subsequently expected to take a qualifying exam. The objective of the investigation is to present and analyse the forms and the documents related to the regulation in practical training. In the course of the essay we will go into details concerning the difficulties and problems in organising practical training as well as the issue whether the vocational training allowed to contribute to develop trainee teachers’ expertise. The use of primary sources such as curricula and regulations were included during the investigation.

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Original research article. The Gymnastics Program in the Training Of Military Structures of Serbia since 1850

Summary

Observing the development of physical training classes of the Army throughout history, from the Army of the Principality of Serbia to the Serbian Armed Forces of today, it can be said that, in addition to other program segments, gymnastics was the fundamental factor of physical exercise in the overall process of practical and military training. This development was accompanied by frequent changes in the realization of physical training (program contents, number of hours, methodical procedure, etc.), which again depended on the needs of the army, in other words, on the objective of the training - which was aimed at achieving optimal physical abilities for the performance of military duties in all circumstances. The first written facts about the use of gymnastics in the Army of the Principality of Serbia originate from the period of the founding of the Artillery School (in 1850, a predecessor of the Military Academy), where the basis of physical training consisted of the following contents: fighting, gymnastics, swimming, fencing and riding. A little later, in 1867, within the physical training, gymnastic exercises were performed and were the forerunners of today's morning workout, which is even today an integral part of the training of members of the Army of Serbia. The problem of this research work relates to the implementation of the development of gymnastics in the process of training from the Army of the Principality of Serbia to the Serbian Army.

The aim of this paper is to indicate the permanent implementation of the contents of gymnastics in the educational process of military structures as well as temporary changes according to the specific requirements of the upgrading of military and professional-specialized skills of military personnel in view of research of relevant materials and data collected. A historical method was used in this study. Research results show the importance and role of gymnastics as a basis of physical exercise for the improvement of the physical abilities of soldiers as the basic element of combat readiness.

Open access
Etes-vous pret? Partez! – The Late Start of Women Rowers

Abstract

The aim of our study is to show the development of women's rowing and competition, as well as the reasons for its slow spread, taking into account the so called decisive era, the social environment, which, although in various ways, has greatly influenced it all over the world. One of the major research methods for collecting data was document analysis: we used the volumes of Gusztáv Götz's legacy1found in the sports history collection of the Hungarian Rowing Federation, whose spirit we also tried to preserve. In these volumes we found and analysed congressional reports, resolutions made by the national rowing federations, professional articles on rowing and papers on sports medicine. In addition, we studied the relevant literature, namely, studies dealing with the era from sociological, sports sociological and sports historical perspectives. Moreover, via membership in the Traditionalist Committee of the Hungarian Rowing Federation we had the opportunity to meet the great Hungarian female rowing champions of the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, and we prepared structured in-depth interviews with them. Meeting most often with Anna Domonkos1, Ágnes Bán1, Zsuzsanna Rakitay1. The results show that the international rowing society was divided, the social and medical discourse differed from each other in the assessment of women's sports, sports historical traditions varied country by country and international sports politics also played a decisive role in the delay. With the results, our paper is intended to give a more thorough picture of the reasons why women's competition in rowing has expanded so slowly than the previous analyses did.

Open access
Tracing the Life and Work of August Rozental

Abstract

Introduction. The objective of this paper was to provide an overview of the life and work of a Polish artist and painter, August Rozental, who lived and worked in Bulgaria in the late 19th and early 20th century and is completely unknown in Poland. Documentation of his work may be of interest to both art historians and Polish travel agencies, the latter for marketing purposes. Material and methods. In searching for reliable information, the focus remained on historical, icono-graphic and epigraphic sources. Archival and museum collections were consulted, as were academic libraries, periodicals and internet sites (Polish, Bulgarian, Serbian and Russian). The information thus obtained was verified on the basis of three interviews with museology specialists. Results. The information was presented in terms of a description of the location and marketing product, to address the needs of cultural tourism. Consequently, the descriptions focus primarily on the artist's surviving works and their locations in monasteries in and around Sofia. Along the way, interesting information was discovered regarding the accomplishments of his brother Juliusz, a poet, and their father August, a doctor who years earlier was exiled to Siberia along with his family. Original, newly discovered documents containing personal information about August Rozental (the painter) are also presented. Conclusion. The research confirms his Polish origins and documents the current locations of his most interesting works of art. This makes them easily accessible to both specialists and tourists interested in the subject.

Open access
The Purpose of Kata: When, Why, and for Whom Kata Forms Have Occurred in Okinawa

Abstract

The primary aim of this research is to prove that the Kata forms were created for the self-defense of a weaker person against a stronger one. The materials and methods used for this research include a study of literature, old Chinese drawings, practical experience with Monku Jutsu, acupressure point fighting, history, Kata forms, anatomy, and body kinetics, as well as Chinese and modern philosophy.

The most significant result of this study is a new approach to understanding Kata forms, with the most important conclusion being that Kata forms are an art of selfdefense that do not require fingers like iron or a body as hard as a rock in order for this knowledge to be used in a real life situation.

Open access