The approach to music styles entails an in-depth musicological analysis aimed at synthesizing numerous bibliographical sources belonging to different fields and directions of research. A chronological overview of studies (Jean Molino, Fait musical et sémiologie de la musique, 1975; Jean Jaques Nattiez, Quelques reflexions du style, 1993; R. J. Pascall, Style, in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 1994; Jean Jaques Nattiez, La musique de l’avenir, in Musique. Une Encyclopédie pour le XXI siècle, 2003; Mario Baroni, Stil şi mutaţii stilistice în tradiţia muzicală europeană, in Musique Une encyclopédie pour le XXI siècle, 2006) and of universal (Leonard Meyer, Explaining Music, 1973; Charles Rosen, Le style classique: Haydn. Mozart, Beethoven, 1978; Leonard B. Meyer, Style and Music. Theory, History and Ideology, 1989; and Romanian specialised literature (Cornel Ţăranu, Elemente de stilistică muzicală (sec. XX), 1981; Edgar Papu, Despre stiluri, 1986; Valentina Sandu-Dediu, Alegeri Atitudini Afecte, 2010; Vasile Iliuţ, O carte a stilurilor muzicale, 2011; Valentin Timaru, Stilistică muzicală, 2014) from the late 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century, reveal the different and, more often than not, contrasting views of historians, analysts, aestheticians, philosophers, scholars and educators, starting from the meaning of the very idea of style, to the reception of this phenomenon in contemporaneity. On these grounds, this study proposes a systematization of the most relevant landmarks in documentation to date, for the purpose of applying them from a didactic perspective.
The educational programs dedicated to gifted and talented people are developed or must be developed starting with an adhesion to a definition of the working concept, in this case „giftedness” or „talent”. A foray into the literature proves that the meaning of the concept of giftedness has developed over time, as influenced by various factors such as historical (history of the research) and of human nature (psychological or educational). The aim of the paper is to make a review of the associated key moments in the evolution of the concept of giftedness. The bibliographical sources allowed us to achieve a chronological overview of the position/attitude of the most prestigious researchers in the field, who tried to explain the concept of giftedness and talent. The collected data demonstrates that there is no unanimous acceptance of a single definition until today, and that the concept keeps its tendency to perpetual transformation. The constant during this time remains its relationship with the demonstrated, respectively with the potential performance.
Lucie Kodišová, Lenka Vacinová, Jiří Sejkora and Luboš Polanský
The new Treasury of the National Museum will present rare crafts-manship of precious stones and metals in connection with the natural form of these materials. The Treasury will be followed by a Numismatic Cabinet, which will introduce the history of money from Antiquity till today. The Treasury and the Numismatic Cabinet will be interconnected in a joint hall devoted to gold and silver and they will be thematically intertwined in the hallway with the presentation of production technologies. The Treasury is created in close cooperation within the National Museum – the Natural History Museum and the Historical Museum. The base line will consist of minerals from diamonds to quartz and organic matter, which will join together with goldsmiths and artisanal arts into a unique complex. The main goal of the new Numismatic Cabinet is the establishment of a numismatic exposition that will be both scholarly exact and intriguing at the same time, educating visitors of the development of payment methods from Antiquity until today in a comprehensible and attractive way. The chronological exposition will be divided into several basic thematic sequential units.
Nature (Příroda) is an aggregate of more or less separate permanent natural science exhibitions. These are focused on mineralogy, meteorites and tektites, famous ore deposits and mines of the Czech Republic, prehistorical development of Czech territory, mycology and botany. The majority of “Nature” is devoted to geosciences, whereas contemporary nature of the Czech Republic will be presented in a series of multidisciplinary temporary exhibitions focused on individual phenomena of (not only) Czech nature and on the interrelations of man and nature. The mineralogical exhibition will be installed in its original location and historical furniture being a reminder of the original exhibits that have been preserved intact since the end of the 19th century.
Jiří Košta, Petr Velemínský, Helena Svobodová and Vítězslav Kuželka
The People exhibition will be composed of several closely interconnected expositions. The first will be the mainly biological-anthropological exposition Man and His Predecessors, which will continually transform into an archaeological and cultural-anthropological exposition Story of the Prehistoric Past. A smaller exhibition devoted to diseases and their treatment will form a standalone unit. The final exposition will be dedicated to Antique arts and culture. The exposition block will encompass the most comprehensive presentation of anthropology, prehistory and Antique material culture in the Czech lands. General patterns of humans, societies and culture will be presented through the development of man and Czech and European prehistory and Antiquity. Interlinking approaches of various disciplines will form the fundament for original and current presentations of individual topics. It will offer not only interpretations and conclusions, but it will also reveal the possibilities and limits of their study methods. The ratio of presentation forms will change throughout the individual parts of the exposition blocks. The visual focal point will pass from models, reconstructions, replicas and dioramas towards the impressive power of original exhibits.
For almost seven decades, “Studia Pedagogiczne” has witnessed the development and transformations of Polish pedagogy. The first issue was published in 1954. The period between 1954 and 2018 has been a time of global change, and also change in Poland, affecting all spheres of life, be it political, economic, social or cultural. The journal accompanied those transformations and documented many of them, and so it also serves as evidence of these changes. The purpose of this presented text is not to analyse the content of the journal. Instead, it is to approach the topics discussed in it, the areas tackled by the authors and the changes in the perception of the educational reality in Poland from the perspective of passing time and with consideration of their variety.
Eva Doležalová, Marie Šedivá Koldinská, Martin Sekera, Jana Mezerová and Marek Junek
The exposition named History will present the development of the Czech lands from the 9th century till the present. The exposition will be divided into two separate spaces – the Historical Building of the National Museum will house the history of the 9th–19th centuries and the New Building of the National Museum will house the history from the 20th century. Despite reflecting to a certain extent the traditional division of the Middle Ages, Early Modern Period, the “long” 19th century, and the 20th century, the narrative will be continuous without any artificial historical disruptions. We will debunk some historical myths and stereotypes. Emphasis will be laid on the presentation of items from the collections of the National Museum. A certain update will also be important, i.e. the presentation of ideas and symbols, that we refer to today. Parallel narratives will be nonetheless important, as they will show that history is not unambiguous and that certain events can be viewed from several different perspectives (e.g. the winner and the loser, nobleman and subject). Last but not least, we will address the issues of individual freedom and its limits.
The aim of the presented study is to bring together almost fifteen years of the Centre for the Study of Museology of the Charles University’s Faculty of the Arts at the National Museum in Prague (herein - after referred to as the Centre), one of the most important contemporary methodological and educational centres in the field of museology. The subject of interest will gradually become an analysis of the factors and phenomena that led to its establishment in 1967, including the theoretical concept of the head of the Centre, Jiří Neustupný, which became the starting point for the final form of its curriculum. In addition to outlining the structure for the curriculum for the students of Charles University’s daily study and for the museum staff and introducing personalities who have participated in educational activities, the text also deals with its non-teaching activities (such as research and methodological activities, cooperation within both the domestic and the international museum organisations, while collecting and publishing museological literature). The work was created to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the museological centre which is recognised by international authorities and, as the first one, this work seeks to map its development.