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Cultural heritage of Varna and its tourist recognisability in Europe

Abstract

Cultural heritage of the European civilization constitutes cultural and spiritual property of the ancestors, as well as current generations of the Varna city. It represents both material and non-material value, defines the European culture. It includes all the environmental consequences arising from the interaction between the man and the surroundings over the course of history. Assessment of tourist potential of Varna performed on 9-14th September, 2014, by the members of the “European Traveler” scientific circle, students of tourist and recreation, as well as heritage and culture tourism at Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, made it possible to identify the main points of tourist recognizability in relation to the city and region. The staid points are predominantly based on the unique cultural assets of the city and the region - in large measure related to the origins of the European civilization - as well as current cultural events organized in the city.

Open access
An Unbiased View of the History of Polish Medical Physics by a Senior Polish Medical Physicist

An Unbiased View of the History of Polish Medical Physics by a Senior Polish Medical Physicist

Open access
The elastic undrained modulus Eu50 for stiff consolidated clays related to the concept of stress history and normalized soil properties

Abstract

The paper presents the results of a triaxial test conducted on stiff, consolidated clays. The standard TXCIU procedure (isotropic consolidation and undrained shearing) was applied in the laboratory soil tests. The undrained elastic modulus Eu50 was determined from each test.

The Eu50 values were determined for soil samples cut out from different depths and tested under different confining pressures. There was a significant scatter of values with depth, and no relationships between Eu50 modules or other geotechnical parameters (e.g., cu) were observed.

This work presents the concept of normalization of Eu50 modulus values using modified normalization SHANSEP (Stress History And Normalized Soil Engineering Properties). This method was first proposed for estimating the value of the undrained shear strength cu normalizing the parameter relative to the in situ effective vertical stress σ′vo and loading history (overconsolidation stress σ′p and overconsolidation ratio OCR) of the soil.

The study demonstrated that the concept of normalization of soil properties can also be used for testing elastic modulus Eu50 of consolidated natural clays and normalized values of geotechnical parameters taking into account the state of stress and load history can be correlated with the value of the overburden pressure.

Open access