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Between America and Europe – Communicating in the Light of the Spatial Mobility of Poles. Part 1

Abstract

Emigration from Poland has a rich and complicated history. Also nowadays, international mobility is still a constant element present in the life of Polish society and in worldwide trends. Migrating beyond the borders of a given country has become a feature of contemporary citizens of the world. The new global mobility trends are: globalization, acceleration, diversity and transnationality, feminization (Castles, Miller, 2011). In reference to the issue of the volume, major emphasis was placed on the first of these trends, i.e. globalization. The purpose of this paper is to show how migrants have communicated with members of their families during cumulative dislocations from the late 19th century to modern times. Particular attention was paid to the ways of maintaining contact with family and the country of origin.

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Latvian Terminology of Marriage in 20th Century Legislative Acts

Abstract

Among the political changes brought about by the First World War was the formation of new countries, including Latvia. This in turn resulted in a strong need for the first national legislative acts and thus a substantial amount of effort to develop Latvian legal terminology which dates back to the beginning of the 19th century.

The purpose of the paper is to study the development of Latvian terminology of marriage in the 20th century through analysis of the relevant body of laws. The paper focuses on marriage-related terms extracted from the major legislative acts governing the institution of marriage in the 20th century. The present study adopts the qualitative research approach which constitutes data collection (selection of the relevant legislative acts, term extraction) and data analysis (qualitative analysis of extracted terms). For the purposes of a comprehensive and efficient analysis of the extracted legal terms, marriage terms are divided into the following five thematic groups: 1) engagement; 2) entering into marriage; 3) nullity of marriage; 4) dissolution of marriage (divorce); and 5) consequences of dissolution or nullity of marriage. The paper suggests that the core of the Latvian terminology of marriage has remained stable, as entering into marriage is a solid procedure where two interested parties give notice to a public or religious institution in order to officially register their relationship. Similarly, both parties often feel the need to terminate this relationship just as officially. This stability of fundamental processes contributes to terminological continuity.

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Sports Photography and Historical Development

Summary

Sports photography undoubtedly has a significant place in sports press and publicism. It’s main and primary role is to present sports to the readers as art, which it is. Sport is characterized by dynamic and varied movements, and the main role of sports photography is reflected in the fact that it is in this way that sport shows its essence. Having in mind that photography tells more than a thousand words it sends a clear message to the reader as well to people who are informed about events via sports portals. Sports photography is a multidimensional art for many reasons. When we say “multi”, it primarily refers to a wider range that sports photography has to offer, which means sports photography is not only directed at presenting athletes on the move and the main actors who contribute to achieving the results by their engagement – it also has the role of sports “psychophotography” which is an analysis and capture of the emotional reaction of an athlete after winning or losing from the opposing team.

Open access
Preface: Reflections on Emotions

Abstract

Many academic disciplines have offered important explanations of various aspects of emotion. In the Preface I try to present a wide range of research and stress that study on emotions had its origins in philosophy.

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Original research article. The Gymnastics Program in the Training Of Military Structures of Serbia since 1850

Summary

Observing the development of physical training classes of the Army throughout history, from the Army of the Principality of Serbia to the Serbian Armed Forces of today, it can be said that, in addition to other program segments, gymnastics was the fundamental factor of physical exercise in the overall process of practical and military training. This development was accompanied by frequent changes in the realization of physical training (program contents, number of hours, methodical procedure, etc.), which again depended on the needs of the army, in other words, on the objective of the training - which was aimed at achieving optimal physical abilities for the performance of military duties in all circumstances. The first written facts about the use of gymnastics in the Army of the Principality of Serbia originate from the period of the founding of the Artillery School (in 1850, a predecessor of the Military Academy), where the basis of physical training consisted of the following contents: fighting, gymnastics, swimming, fencing and riding. A little later, in 1867, within the physical training, gymnastic exercises were performed and were the forerunners of today's morning workout, which is even today an integral part of the training of members of the Army of Serbia. The problem of this research work relates to the implementation of the development of gymnastics in the process of training from the Army of the Principality of Serbia to the Serbian Army.

The aim of this paper is to indicate the permanent implementation of the contents of gymnastics in the educational process of military structures as well as temporary changes according to the specific requirements of the upgrading of military and professional-specialized skills of military personnel in view of research of relevant materials and data collected. A historical method was used in this study. Research results show the importance and role of gymnastics as a basis of physical exercise for the improvement of the physical abilities of soldiers as the basic element of combat readiness.

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Book Review “Religion Explained? The Cognitive Science of Religion after Twenty-Five Years”

Abstract

I review the book “Religion Explained? The Cognitive Science of Religion after Twenty-Five Years.” I discuss all the papers in the book and highlight some recurrent issues.

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The Genesis of Arabic Logical Activities: From Syriac Rhetoric and Jewish Hermeneutics to āl-Šāfi‘y’s Logical Techniques

Abstract

This paper tries to outline a history of development of informal logic in Semitic languages and especially in Arabic. It tries to explain how the first definite formulation of rules of this logic appeared at āl-Šāfi‘y’s Risāla, a work on ’uswl āl-fiqh or methodology of law. It attempts also to provide new theories and hypotheses about the translation movement in the Arabic and Islamic medieval world.

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