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The elastic undrained modulus Eu50 for stiff consolidated clays related to the concept of stress history and normalized soil properties


The paper presents the results of a triaxial test conducted on stiff, consolidated clays. The standard TXCIU procedure (isotropic consolidation and undrained shearing) was applied in the laboratory soil tests. The undrained elastic modulus Eu50 was determined from each test.

The Eu50 values were determined for soil samples cut out from different depths and tested under different confining pressures. There was a significant scatter of values with depth, and no relationships between Eu50 modules or other geotechnical parameters (e.g., cu) were observed.

This work presents the concept of normalization of Eu50 modulus values using modified normalization SHANSEP (Stress History And Normalized Soil Engineering Properties). This method was first proposed for estimating the value of the undrained shear strength cu normalizing the parameter relative to the in situ effective vertical stress σ′vo and loading history (overconsolidation stress σ′p and overconsolidation ratio OCR) of the soil.

The study demonstrated that the concept of normalization of soil properties can also be used for testing elastic modulus Eu50 of consolidated natural clays and normalized values of geotechnical parameters taking into account the state of stress and load history can be correlated with the value of the overburden pressure.

Open access
Seismic Isolation of Bridges Using the Principle of Electromagnetic Attraction and Repulsion


This paper presents a new type of seismic isolator that uses the principle of electromagnetic attraction and repulsion, to control the friction force between two electromagnets during earthquakes. The two electromagnets are used in conjunction with a secondary high friction dissipating and damping mechanism composed from a 10mm thick neoprene ring layer and two steel surfaces coated with Si3N4 that are used to dissipate the kinetic energy in the bridge deck at some maximum ground accelerations. The isolator utilizes tri-axial accelerometers embedded in the abutments, high current rechargeable batteries and an automated controlling unit. The presented isolator was developed specifically for a concrete bridge deck with a span of 36 meters and simple supported on two abutments, using time history electromagnetic and structural analyses. The paper presents the advantages of using this active seismic isolation system, compared to classical passive devices and the important results obtained in terms of decreasing internal forces on the substructure elements cross sections together with the reduction of relative displacements between the two electromagnets.

Open access