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Teratology – past, present and future

ABSTRACT

Teratology is the science that studies the causes, mechanisms, and patterns of abnormal development. The authors present an updated overview of the most important milestones and stages of the development of modern teratology. Development of knowledge and society led to the recognition that causes of congenital developmental disorders (CDDs) might be caused by various mechanical effects, foetal diseases, and retarded or arrested development of the embryo and foetus. Based on the analysis of the historical development of hypotheses and theories representing a decisive contribution to this field, we present a survey of the six Wilson´s fundamental principles of teratology. The aim of observing these principles is to get insight into developmental relations and to understand mechanisms of action on the level of cell populations (elementary morphogenetic processes), tissues and organs. It is important to realise that any negative intervention into the normal course of these processes, either on genetic or non-genetic basis, inevitably leads to a sequence of subsequent changes resulting in CDDs. Moreover, the classical toxicologic monotonic doseresponse paradigm recently has been challenged by the so-called “low dose-hypothesis”, particularly in the case of endocrine active substances. These include some pesticides, dioxins, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), and bisphenol A. Despite modern approaches of molecular biology and genetics, along with top diagnostic techniques, we are still not able to identify the actual cause in more than 65 to 70% of all congenital defects classified as having an unknown etiology. Today CDDs include any birth defect, either morphological, biochemical, or behavioural.

Open access
Exploration of teratogenic and genotoxic effects of fruit ripening retardant Alar (Daminozide) on model organism Drosophila melanogaster

Abstract

Alar (Daminozide) is a plant growth regulator which is widely used as a fruit preservative for apple and mango to prevent pre-harvest fruit drop, promote color development and to delay excessive ripening. The aim of the present work was to demonstrate the effect of Alar on several life history traits, adult morphology, Hsp70 protein expression and in vivo DNA damage in the brain of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. We assessed the life history and morphological traits including fecundity, developmental time, pupation height, egg-to-adult viability and mean wing length, body length, arista length and sternopleural bristle number of the emerging flies. The results showed a significant delay in the developmental milestones, increase in body length, wing length, arista length, a decrease in fecundity, pupal height and variation in sternopleural bristle number in the treated flies in comparison to the controls. Overexpression of Hsp70 protein suggests alar induced subcellular molecular stress and comet assay validates genotoxicity in the form of DNA damage in the treated larvae. Mutation screening experiment revealed induction of X lined lethal mutation.

Open access
The history of pharmacy in Adamów

Abstract

This is one of a series of articles about pharmacists in Lublin district, in the 19th and 20th c. The first recorded owner of the pharmacy in Adamów was Aleksander Biernacki (1851-1897), who passed it onto his son-in-law, Aleksander Rogoziński (1873-1941), and who, in turn, passed it onto his son, Stanisław Rogoziński (1913-1998), married to Tatiana (1918-1998). This family's history is an example of the history of Polish intelligentsia in the second half of 19th c., in the times of the Russian partition, World War I, 1918-1939, World War II and until contemporary times.

Open access