Nowadays, traditional criminal policy is facing its limits and is unable to cope with the rising criminality. Current criminal justice based on repressive approaches is unable to face serious obstacles and problems, namely in efficiency of punishment, poor protection of victims, and slow and overburdened criminal courts. New models of criminal judiciary based on principles of restorative justice have been unveiled while traditional systems of criminal justice are facing a serious crisis. The conception of restorative justice is one of the most modern and progressive of current approaches to criminal law that deserves to be implemented into the Slovakia criminal judiciary system. Author focused on punishments as home arrest, compulsory labour and financial penalty.
The lively debate about European cross-border donations and the European philanthropic landscape that has been started has seemingly reached a slight standstill since the global financial crisis and austerity plans are dominating the every day discussion. However, the European non-profit sector remains an area that is of crucial importance for the European labour market, the European Research Area, and most importantly, the participation of European civil society which directly influences questions of citizenship and European identity. The paper will compare the origin and legal framework of the English and the German charitable foundations and link it to the EU’s third sector where the European Foundation Centre (EFC) as a key representative for civil society actors in the non-profit area and the Commission play a pivotal role in the establishment of a European Foundation Statute (FE) that is meant to facilitate cross-border donations and non-profit activities throughout the EU. In the concluding part, the wider meaning of a strong third sector in the EU will be analysed.