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New Urbanization of the Steppe. Astana: A Capital Called the Capital

Abstract

Relocating the capital of Kazakhstan from Almaty to Akmola (then renamed Astana) in 1997 has been the subject of an intense debate, particularly within media. The process of creating the new capital of Kazakhstan should consider the broader perspective of historical, political and ideological, social, climatic and geographical factors, and finally to put the matter in terms of architecture and urban planning. The author considers this very broad perspective, finally expressing the hope that the project of “the city of the future” analyzed in the article, will become a permanent part of the Kazakh reality.

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Lay-Out and Spatial Development of Towns from Great Poland in the 13th Century – Preliminary Research

Abstract

This paper deals with the problem of shaping landscape. The examples of towns of Great Poland from the 13th century were implemented and used. Their layout was not accidental. Towns were created with a substantial dose of accuracy. A market square was precisely laid out; roads were turned straight to the nearby towns, and plots were created for townsmen. It tended to be the final product of human thought and idea. The comparison of towns’ sizes shows that the same measures and similar schemes were used. In a medieval town each and every aspect was carefully planned and wellthought- out, but sometimes it was modified due to the terrain. Subsequent generations interpreted landscape on their own and occasionally changed the layout of a town. The contemporary appearance of towns is a product of thought materialisation in the living space. That is why the landscape of towns can be analysed and read.

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Poverty and Wealth in the Polish Cinematography 1945-1989

Abstract

This article is devoted to poverty and wealth presented in fiction films - both cinema and television - directed in the times of the Polish People’s Republic. Poverty and wealth shown intentionally and unintentionally in these films manifest themselves in many ways. If we want to learn anything about wealth of the society shown in a given movie, a critical approach must be applied

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