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25 Years of Reports on Geodesy and Geoinformatics

Abstract

The article presents an outline of the 25-year history of the journal “Reports on Geodesy and Geoinformatics”. The source of information was mainly the journal issues themselves. Attention was drawn to changes that the journal underwent over a quarter of a century and its relationship with the Institute of Geodesy and Geodetic Astronomy and later the Department of Geodesy and Geodetic Astronomy. Many issues were dedicated to materials from Polish conferences - those organised by the Institute and the international ones attended by the employees of the Institute, which was indicated in the section on the history of the journal.

The second part of the article concerns the current activity and importance of the journal. Attention was paid to visibility of “Reports on Geodesy and Geoinformatics” in the domestic and foreign databases. Polish databases where the journal is indexed have been identified and briefly described. A separate issue is the evaluation of the journal, which forms a measure of its popularity among consumers. For this purpose, various parameters and biometrics indicators are used. The article used the Web of Science, Google Scholar and the Ministerial List databases for the assessment of the journal.

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Lithological maps visualizing the achievements of geological sciences in the first half of the 19th century

Abstract

The paper discusses selected maps of rock strata which exemplify the evolution stages of presentation methods of cartographic data concerning the geological structure of selected countries (France, Great Britain and Germany) which in the first half of the nineteenth century constituted the leaders of the field. The results of geologists’ work are used to present the content of maps, provide explanations and showcase the methods and techniques chosen by the maps’ creators. The analysed maps are accompanied by geological writings which contain descriptions of the chronological order within rock formations and strata defined on the basis of fossils, methods of recreating the geological history of individual regions, and attempts of compiling the acquired knowledge and using it to describe larger areas. The author discusses also two maps of Europe published in the mid-nineteenth century, which are the result of cooperation and research achievements of geologists from different countries.

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Cartographic image of immaterial elements in a city on the example of city maps of Warsaw from 1641 until the end of the 19th century

Abstract

The article discusses the problem of cartographic presentation of immaterial elements of city space. On the example of old city maps of Warsaw from the period between 1641 and the end of the 19th century, the image of objects and places in Warsaw is linked to the image of activities happening in them, or in connection with them. The author presents results of the analysis of the methods of presentation of immaterial elements, distinguishing three most numerous groups of them: nomenclature, functions and significance of objects, and property and administrative issues. The conclusions base on the analysis of 61 general city maps of Warsaw covering the whole city, elaborated in the periods 1641–1800, 1801–1900, and, supplementary, 1901–1939.

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Continental Atlas of Poland for Automobilists – the first road atlas in the independent Poland

Abstract

The 90th anniversary of the appearance of Atlas Polski Continental dla automobilistów (Continental Atlas of Poland for Automobilists) published by Continental Caoutchouc Compagnie Ltd Warsaw is nearing. The Atlas was the first publication of its kind after Poland had regained its independence in 1918.

After mentioning the earlier 19th and the beginning of 20th century road maps, mainly from the region known as the Kingdom of Poland being at the time under the rule of the Russian Empire, the author of the article discusses the Continental road atlas.

The date of publishing the Continental road atlas is not known, therefore in the article the author makes an attempt at establishing it on the basis of the map’s contents: railroad lines, settlement network and administrative borders. Unfortunately, the study does not allow one to unequivocally state the date of publication due to numerous shortcomings in the map’s contents. Nevertheless, the date may be estimated as the beginning of the year 1926.

The atlas consists of 20 single-sided map sheets (foldouts) at the scale of 1:1,000,000, which cover the whole territory of Poland as well as some parts of neighboring countries, and a general map showing the division into sheets. The maps’ main contents consists of five categories of roads marked in red. Their background is composed of railroad lines, towns and villages in seven size classes according to the number of inhabitants, water network, some peaks and passes as well as mountain range names. Explanations of map symbols in the legend are given in five languages: Polish, Russian, German, French, English.

The atlas very clearly shows the differences in the density and quality of roads between the regions of the Prussian and Austrian partitions and the road infrastructure-wise neglected Russian partition, especially its eastern part. Apart from mileage information for roads, the maps do not contain additional information specifically for motorists. They do not even show petrol stations or auto repair shops.

What is really worth praise is the sole idea of creating such an automobile atlas and publishing it in 10,000 copies, a copy for every other Polish driver at the time! The fact speaks for the publisher’s, Continental Caoutchouc Compagnie’s, perspective. Despite numerous shortcomings discussed in the article, the Continental Atlas of Poland for Automobilists remains an unique work, which gave a beginning to a new kind of maps in Poland.

Open access
The beginnings of the choropleth presentation

Abstract

The discovery in the cartographic collections of the Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies at the University of Warsaw of an original map by Charles Dupin – the first choropleth map – provided an opportunity to conduct a closer methodological analysis of the map and to investigate the subsequent development of this presentation method during the first half of 19th century. From relatively early on, the accepted principle was for choropleth map presentations to use statistical data still imprecisely referred to as relative, as well as using a distribution series as a method of generalizing data.

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Geological content on maps and in accompanying texts developed until the end of the 18th century

Abstract

For many centuries on general geographical maps and early maritime maps geological information was rarely included. The map of the Wadi Hammamat valley, the Borgia world map, the Catalan world map and Carta de nauigar per le Isole nouamente... portolan chart were indicated as examples. Places where minerals occurred were presented mainly using textual descriptions.

Among Renaissance maps and later maps published before the second half of the 18th century, the map of the Kingdom of Bavaria by Philipp Apian and the map of the Duchy of Świdnica in Silesia by Johann Wieland and Matthaus Schubart were discussed as examples. Distribution of raw materials and places of their extraction were shown using simple geometric signs with graphic characteristics for a given period.

Mineralogical maps published in the second half of the 18th century were described based on the example of maps by Jean-Étienne Guettard and Johann Jirasek. Their content was compared with the texts accompanying them, developed under patronage of the contemporary scientific institutions and relevant methods of geological information presentation were described. From the late Renaissance symbols signifying extraction sites of raw materials had simplified and rather random shapes which indicates ‘unhurried’ development of cartographic methods on geological maps.

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The cartographic materials auxiliary in the determination of the borders of Poland during the Paris Peace Conference (1919–1920) in the light of archival records

Abstract

The work indicated in Polish literature as the cartographic basis for the negotiations of Polish issues at the Paris Peace Conference (1919–1920) is Eugeniusz Romer’s Geograficzno-statystyczny atlas Polski (Geographical and Statistical Atlas of Poland). Given the complicated fate of the atlas, the position of its author in the Polish delegation, and the multidisciplinarity and importance of the conference, it is worth considering whether this atlas really played such an important role, or whether this is merely a statement, a repeated assignment of this role, to stave off concealment or lack of knowledge about other cartographic materials developed and used for the same purpose. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to determine the level of use of cartographic documents other than the Geographical and Statistical Atlas of Poland in lobbying and official negotiations of Polish issues before and during the Paris Peace Conference. The research task was associated with an extensive archival query, which confirmed the fact that dozens of maps survived, mainly manuscripts, which were prepared before and during the conference. It should be concluded that the maps of E. Romer’s atlas constituted one set of many equally important cartographic documents which were used by the negotiators at the Paris Peace Conference.

Open access