Three essential periods may be singled out in the development of cartography as a science:
1. From the beginning of the last century to the mid-sixties is the period of development of cartography as a distinct science.
2. The period dating from the mid-sixties till the eighties is the golden age of development of theoretical cartography with special amplification of discussions on the subject of the theoretical fundamentals of cartography. At the end of the former period and at the beginning of the latter, cartography finally distinguished itself as an independent science. In 1959, the International Cartographic Association was founded. In 1961, the International Yearbook of Cartography was published for the first time and beginning in 1969, Polski Przegląd Kartograficzny (the Polish Cartographic Review). A year earlier, Komisja Kartograficzna Polskiego Towarzystwa Geograficznego (the Cartographic Commission of the Polish Geographical Society) was established.
3. Since the mid-eighties, and even somewhat earlier, use of new IT technologies, especially interest in the map as an element of geographic information systems, has become the dominating trend in cartography.
Kuat Saparov, Jiri Chlachula and Aigul Yeginbayeva
This study examines the etymology of the principal physiographic entities of the ancient Sary-Arka area–meaning in the old Turkic language Yellowing Ridge – encompassing the present territory of parkland-steppes, rocky highlands and the adjacent mountains of North and East Kazakhstan. The current linguistic evidence points to a complex and chronologically long culture-historical development reflected by the local place names best-recorded for the major rivers and mountains (hydronyms and oronyms, respectively). Not all geo-site names are securely determined by using modern onomastics. Records of material culture provide additional multi-proxy information. Local uniformity of some toponyms across the extensive area assuming a common cultural background attests to a broader ethnic homogeneity and/or mobility of the ancient populations inhabiting this vast and geomorphically mosaic land. This suggests a close relationship and interactions (including demographic exchanges and mixing) between the past pastoral ethics in the parkland-steppe and semi-desert areas north of Lake Balkhash between the Aral Sea and the southern Urals in the West and the Alatau–Altai Mountain systems in the East. Whereas the hydronyms of the Sary-Arka may have a rather complex and not fully clear origin with a connection to the Turkic-Tatar medieval tribes and nations’ occupancy in northern Central Asia eventually modified into the present Kazakh language forms, the oronyms of the East Kazakhstan mountain ranges indicate the Mongolian roots.
The article presents the relation between the presence of works of art (buildings, sculptures, paintings) at different locations in the world, and tourism. The main theoretical and practical questions include the following: How important is knowledge of the history of art for seeing works of art? What other factors make modern travellers visit places where they can find these works of art?
Tudorache George-Stelian, Ionac Nicoleta, Maco Bogdan and Manea Ancuța
The metadata are defined as the informations behind the data. The purpose of the metadata in meteorological activity is to represent where, when, how and by whom meteorological data has been obtained, colected and recorded. Ideally, a comprehensive metadata base should contain records of all changes that have occured throughout the entire period in which the meteorological station has functioned, the so called „station history”. This paper renders the preliminary results of the analysed wind parameter values (percentages of wind calm and wind frequency) for the time period between 1961 and 2015 at Iași meteorological station. The data were analysed based on various historical metadata information (e.g. the emergence of new construction(s) around the station, relocation of the station, changes in the equipment used to measure the wind etc.), information that may influence the wind parameters measured at Iași weather station.
Former guidebooks are an important category of historical source that allows for the reconstruction of many aspects of the history of tourism. The dynamic development of guidebook literature began in the 19th century when a modern type with descriptions according to routes and containing much practical information was developed. The guidebooks also presented a lot of other information of a general nature, such as geography, ethnology, natural science, as well as descriptions of monuments and works of art. The importance of Polish guidebooks for writing about art is very high yet underestimated. The aim of this paper is to define the role that these publications played in the field of artistic historiography, and to indicate the relationships between the guidebooks and the development of academic research on art. These problems are undoubtedly an interesting area of interdisciplinary relation between the historical development of tourism and academia, with a particular focus on art history in this case.
In view of changing political and economical situation in Poland during the last 150 years, the role and development of press maps in transmission the information is being addressed. Maps published in the newspapers, to a large extent reflected the main topics addressed by the press as well as features of transmission policy of the time. The number of maps published substantially increased during the times of military conflicts and political changes. The press maps, together with the maps addressing criminal and lately common terrorist’s activities, played the most important role among all published maps. Besides providing the information and allowing understanding the background of the events, in some cases the press maps played educational role and in other cases, through the mass media they became accessible to the general public. The early 1990s brought a gradual increase in number of maps published. The political changes in Poland after 1989 resulting in, among others, the introduction of market economy, suppression of censorship and state mass media monopoly, did have significant impact on the development of Polish press and indirectly also on journalistic cartography. Furthermore the use of computers revolutionized the processes of preparing maps.
The aim of this article is to examine the interactions among main cities and the rural communities subordinate to them in central Italy during Late Middle Age. Premise of my work is the refusal of the assumption that cities and towns interacted between them as a whole. I choose Orvieto and its subordinate town of Bagnoregio in 1303 and 1304 as case study to enlighten that parties and faction based in the city and in the town interacted in ways that it is impossible to reduce to the dichotomy master- servant: this links as a whole shaped the dialogue between the city and its subordinates.
Cultural heritage of the European civilization constitutes cultural and spiritual property of the ancestors, as well as current generations of the Varna city. It represents both material and non-material value, defines the European culture. It includes all the environmental consequences arising from the interaction between the man and the surroundings over the course of history. Assessment of tourist potential of Varna performed on 9-14th September, 2014, by the members of the “European Traveler” scientific circle, students of tourist and recreation, as well as heritage and culture tourism at Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, made it possible to identify the main points of tourist recognizability in relation to the city and region. The staid points are predominantly based on the unique cultural assets of the city and the region - in large measure related to the origins of the European civilization - as well as current cultural events organized in the city.
The article presents the characteristics of the relief of the Rypienica channel (the Dobrzyń Lakeland, North Poland) and the postglacial development of vegetation in this area. The detailed analysis of the organic sediments of the peat-bog vegetation of the Rypienica channel documents the development of vegetation since the beginning of the Holocene until the younger part of the Subatlantic period. Holocene sediments record changes in the local vegetation of this peat-bog brought about by fluctuations in climate, changes in local hydrological conditions and the impact of human activity.
This article offers a spatial analysis of the number of applications submitted by agricultural holdings in Poland for funds under the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy over the years 2002-2010 (a total of 874 thous. applications, Table 1). This activity was characterised by dividing the assistance means obtained into measures intended to improve: the natural environment (Table 2, Fig. 1), the agrarian-demographic structure (Table 3, Fig. 2), the technical equipment of farms (Table 4, Fig. 3), and their income situation (Table 5, Fig. 4). The above measures are also shown jointly (Table 6, Fig. 5) and spatial differences in their structure are presented (Table 7, Figs 6 and 7). The analysis showed there to be wide territorial differences among agricultural holdings in Poland in terms of the total number and structure of the CAP measures they implemented.