Three essential periods may be singled out in the development of cartography as a science:
1. From the beginning of the last century to the mid-sixties is the period of development of cartography as a distinct science.
2. The period dating from the mid-sixties till the eighties is the golden age of development of theoretical cartography with special amplification of discussions on the subject of the theoretical fundamentals of cartography. At the end of the former period and at the beginning of the latter, cartography finally distinguished itself as an independent science. In 1959, the International Cartographic Association was founded. In 1961, the International Yearbook of Cartography was published for the first time and beginning in 1969, Polski Przegląd Kartograficzny (the Polish Cartographic Review). A year earlier, Komisja Kartograficzna Polskiego Towarzystwa Geograficznego (the Cartographic Commission of the Polish Geographical Society) was established.
3. Since the mid-eighties, and even somewhat earlier, use of new IT technologies, especially interest in the map as an element of geographic information systems, has become the dominating trend in cartography.
Kuat Saparov, Jiri Chlachula and Aigul Yeginbayeva
This study examines the etymology of the principal physiographic entities of the ancient Sary-Arka area–meaning in the old Turkic language Yellowing Ridge – encompassing the present territory of parkland-steppes, rocky highlands and the adjacent mountains of North and East Kazakhstan. The current linguistic evidence points to a complex and chronologically long culture-historical development reflected by the local place names best-recorded for the major rivers and mountains (hydronyms and oronyms, respectively). Not all geo-site names are securely determined by using modern onomastics. Records of material culture provide additional multi-proxy information. Local uniformity of some toponyms across the extensive area assuming a common cultural background attests to a broader ethnic homogeneity and/or mobility of the ancient populations inhabiting this vast and geomorphically mosaic land. This suggests a close relationship and interactions (including demographic exchanges and mixing) between the past pastoral ethics in the parkland-steppe and semi-desert areas north of Lake Balkhash between the Aral Sea and the southern Urals in the West and the Alatau–Altai Mountain systems in the East. Whereas the hydronyms of the Sary-Arka may have a rather complex and not fully clear origin with a connection to the Turkic-Tatar medieval tribes and nations’ occupancy in northern Central Asia eventually modified into the present Kazakh language forms, the oronyms of the East Kazakhstan mountain ranges indicate the Mongolian roots.
The article presents an outline of the 25-year history of the journal “Reports on Geodesy and Geoinformatics”. The source of information was mainly the journal issues themselves. Attention was drawn to changes that the journal underwent over a quarter of a century and its relationship with the Institute of Geodesy and Geodetic Astronomy and later the Department of Geodesy and Geodetic Astronomy. Many issues were dedicated to materials from Polish conferences - those organised by the Institute and the international ones attended by the employees of the Institute, which was indicated in the section on the history of the journal.
The second part of the article concerns the current activity and importance of the journal. Attention was paid to visibility of “Reports on Geodesy and Geoinformatics” in the domestic and foreign databases. Polish databases where the journal is indexed have been identified and briefly described. A separate issue is the evaluation of the journal, which forms a measure of its popularity among consumers. For this purpose, various parameters and biometrics indicators are used. The article used the Web of Science, Google Scholar and the Ministerial List databases for the assessment of the journal.
The article aims to illustrate how Azerbaijan appeared in the eyes of an Italian who, in the first half of the nineteenth century, had the opportunity to visit it during a trip to Constantinople. Between 1841 and 1842, Felice De Vecchi, a wealthy Milanese passionate about painting and travel, embarked on a journey, together with his naturalist friend Gaetano Osculati, to Constantinople and then, through Persia, visited India. He kept a diary of that journey, only recently found in its almost totality, dedicating an entire chapter to Azerbaijan, the “land of fires”. From his account, rich in anthropological and pictorial notations, emerges a very well-defined sketch that does not hide the wonder of those who meet housing situations and customs far from their country of origin. In order not to lose the most emotional component contained in De Vecchi’s writing, the frequent quotations of passages from the diary are presented in the English translation, followed by the original text in nineteenth-century Italian.
Tudorache George-Stelian, Ionac Nicoleta, Maco Bogdan and Manea Ancuța
The metadata are defined as the informations behind the data. The purpose of the metadata in meteorological activity is to represent where, when, how and by whom meteorological data has been obtained, colected and recorded. Ideally, a comprehensive metadata base should contain records of all changes that have occured throughout the entire period in which the meteorological station has functioned, the so called „station history”. This paper renders the preliminary results of the analysed wind parameter values (percentages of wind calm and wind frequency) for the time period between 1961 and 2015 at Iași meteorological station. The data were analysed based on various historical metadata information (e.g. the emergence of new construction(s) around the station, relocation of the station, changes in the equipment used to measure the wind etc.), information that may influence the wind parameters measured at Iași weather station.
Szeged situated at the confluence of the Tisza and the Maros Rivers has been exposed to significant flood risk for centuries due to its low elevation and its location on the low floodplain level. After the Ottoman (Turkish) occupation of Hungary (ended in 1686), secondary sources often reported that the town was affected by devastating floods which entered the area from north, and a great part of the town or its whole area was inundated. Natural and artificial infill reduced the flood risk to some extent after the town had been founded, but in the 19th century flood risk was mitigated by river engineering and the reconstruction of the town. The town relief was raised by a huge amount of sediment, which makes it difficult to determine the elevation of the original relief as well as the exact flood risk of the study area. However, some engineering surveys originating from the 19th century contain hundreds of levelling data in a dense control point network making possible to model the relief of the whole town preceding its reconstruction and ground infill. Based on these data, we prepared a relief model which was compared with the known data of the 1772 flood peak, from which we deduced that 60% of the town must have been inundated before it was filled up. As there could have been 50-100 cm thick natural or artificial ground infill since the 11th century, the original natural relief can be gained by deducting these data. Based on this deduction, the extent of inundation centuries ago could reach 85%, which means almost total flooding.
The article presents the relation between the presence of works of art (buildings, sculptures, paintings) at different locations in the world, and tourism. The main theoretical and practical questions include the following: How important is knowledge of the history of art for seeing works of art? What other factors make modern travellers visit places where they can find these works of art?
Former guidebooks are an important category of historical source that allows for the reconstruction of many aspects of the history of tourism. The dynamic development of guidebook literature began in the 19th century when a modern type with descriptions according to routes and containing much practical information was developed. The guidebooks also presented a lot of other information of a general nature, such as geography, ethnology, natural science, as well as descriptions of monuments and works of art. The importance of Polish guidebooks for writing about art is very high yet underestimated. The aim of this paper is to define the role that these publications played in the field of artistic historiography, and to indicate the relationships between the guidebooks and the development of academic research on art. These problems are undoubtedly an interesting area of interdisciplinary relation between the historical development of tourism and academia, with a particular focus on art history in this case.
Bottom sediments of Lake Łańskie in NE Poland (Olsztyn Lake District) were studied by pollen analysis, and vegetation changes from ca 4800 BC to modern times were reconstructed based on the results. Due to rapid sedimentation the changes in plant cover are recorded with high resolution. The variation of pollen spectra composition reflects changing shares of deciduous trees and the continuous dominance of pine forest. Nowadays the surroundings of Lake Łańskie are also heavily forested but as early as 1100 AD the deciduous trees began to be eliminated. On the basis of pollen data, five phases of increased human activity were distinguished. Based on the available archaeological chronology of local settlements, the first stage is connected with para-Neolithic groups of Ząbie-Szestno type and the Lusatian culture. They are followed by the West Baltic Barrow culture, Wielbark culture and Early Medieval Prussian tribes. The pollen record shows low intensity of exploitation of the terrain around Lake Łańskie, probably attributable to the brevity of episodes of human occupation in the near vicinity of the lake. The last phase, covering part of the Middle Ages (since ca 1000 AD) and modern times, is reflected in the most distinct vegetation changes on the pollen diagram, caused by increased intensity of settlement. In spite of the distinct diminution of forest cover around the lake the scale of deforestation was much lower than at other sites in NE Poland.
The main aims of this paper were to describe the changes in the palaeoenvironment which took place around Lake Łańskie (Olsztyn Lake District) and to find those changes in the plant cover which were the effect of human activity, and to confirm whether the changes of palaeoenvironment around Lake Łańskie were noted at the same time in adjacent areas.
The paper discusses selected maps of rock strata which exemplify the evolution stages of presentation methods of cartographic data concerning the geological structure of selected countries (France, Great Britain and Germany) which in the first half of the nineteenth century constituted the leaders of the field. The results of geologists’ work are used to present the content of maps, provide explanations and showcase the methods and techniques chosen by the maps’ creators. The analysed maps are accompanied by geological writings which contain descriptions of the chronological order within rock formations and strata defined on the basis of fossils, methods of recreating the geological history of individual regions, and attempts of compiling the acquired knowledge and using it to describe larger areas. The author discusses also two maps of Europe published in the mid-nineteenth century, which are the result of cooperation and research achievements of geologists from different countries.