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History and Debut of the Ski-Mountaineering

Abstract

Since ancient times, skiing has been a way of moving, born out of a spirit of survival. The usefulness of this means of transportation has undergone numerous transformations with implications in terms of utility-applied aspect as well as in the area of sports and recreation. Military Physical Education, as a component of military training, includes utility-applied skiing, focusing in particular on cross-country skiing and ski touring. The modern battlefield requires military training in increasingly complex and new areas in this century, with a focus on the formation of well-trained and multispecialized armies of professionals, to the detriment of mass armies. Ski-mountaineering has increasingly evolved over the last few years, due to the possibility of reaching relatively fast on the ridge tips and lowering even faster, eliminating the barriers imposed by the relief. As the name calls it, it combines the techniques and procedures of skiing with mountaineering.

Open access
The Unwritten History in our Textbooks

Abstract

In his book “The Dacians”, Hadrian Daicoviciu showed that “only a few pages have been preserved of the great book of this people’s ancient history; dozens of pages, undoubtedly among the most interesting, were lost forever and many, perhaps even more interesting, were never written by ancient authors”. There is a text that keeps coming to my mind very often, especially lately, because I have noticed that there is a tendency to remove or skip several pages of our history. The mission of a historian is to try to find out the historical truth with as many pages as possible. We should not overlook, we should not mitigate anything from our past. The lost or unwritten pages of history hinder this mission, it is true, but what should we do about the pages that were written and, deliberately, are not included in the history books?

Open access
The History of Pentathlon Competitions

Abstract

The Pentathlon is a combined athletic discipline of the ancient Olympic Games. A detailed exploration of the ancient Olympic competitions in general and of the pentathlon, in particular, allow us to discover1200 years of sport history. The spectacle of the pentathlon contest, the method of determining a winner, the order of the five disciplines is simply fascinating. The modern Olympic Games redefined the pentathlon among the Olympic disciplines. Under the name of the modern pentathlon, it gradually regained its fame won in antiquity. The military pentathlon is a variant of the modern pentathlon deployed within the military organization and is considered the king of military sports. The evolution of the modern battlefield, strongly influenced by the modern combat technique, will surely change the pentathlon contest register. Even if respect for the Olympic spirit is desired, the pentathlon must take into account the evolution of the contemporary society to keep its attractiveness.

Open access
Seismic Isolation of Bridges Using the Principle of Electromagnetic Attraction and Repulsion

Abstract

This paper presents a new type of seismic isolator that uses the principle of electromagnetic attraction and repulsion, to control the friction force between two electromagnets during earthquakes. The two electromagnets are used in conjunction with a secondary high friction dissipating and damping mechanism composed from a 10mm thick neoprene ring layer and two steel surfaces coated with Si3N4 that are used to dissipate the kinetic energy in the bridge deck at some maximum ground accelerations. The isolator utilizes tri-axial accelerometers embedded in the abutments, high current rechargeable batteries and an automated controlling unit. The presented isolator was developed specifically for a concrete bridge deck with a span of 36 meters and simple supported on two abutments, using time history electromagnetic and structural analyses. The paper presents the advantages of using this active seismic isolation system, compared to classical passive devices and the important results obtained in terms of decreasing internal forces on the substructure elements cross sections together with the reduction of relative displacements between the two electromagnets.

Open access
The Seismic Investigation of Off-Diagonal Steel Braced RC Frames

Abstract

Steel bracing may be used to enhance the seismic strength of RC frames. Concentric steel bracing generally reduces ductility, which is a key component of seismic design. To overcome the problem, ductile steel brace-RC frame systems are therefore usually introduced in the form of eccentric braces. In the present study, the Off-Diagonal Bracing System (ODBS), which works as a concentric type of bracing, is investigated. In this paper the response of ODBS elements to cyclic loading is first explored and compared with those of other types of bracing such as X-bracing and inverted-V bracing systems. The time history analysis responses and cyclic hysteresis responses of a number of lowrise to mid-rise RC frames retrofitted with different types of bracing systems are then evaluated and compared. It is shown that under seismic excitation, a much reduced base shear is experienced by frames retrofitted with ODBS compared to other bracing systems. The results of time history and cyclic hysteresis response analyses also indicate a far greater energy dissipation capacity and ductility for the ODBS compared to other bracing systems. It is also concluded that ODBS performs best in lowrise frames. The out-of-plane buckling response of the ODBS is also investigated, and it is shown that a double-plated central connection can control such an adverse response.

Open access
Is Russia That Powerful in Hybrid Warfare?

Abstract

Short answer is yes. As it is stated in a NATO reference hybrid warfare actions can be applied to the full DIMEFIL (Diplomatic, Information, Military, Economic, Financial, Intelligence, Legal) spectrum. This paper will demonstrate that Russia has significant elements which makes this country very well suited for this type of war and gives her some advantages on all DIMEFIL areas. In my view those elements are: current leadership, history and political mentality, size and geography, economic and financial power and military power.

Open access
UTZON 100

Abstract

Jørn Utzon, the Danish architect genius would be 100 years old in 2018, and he passed away exactly 10 years ago. Although, he produced an unparalleled professional output (including a number of implemented projects, many not built plans and some writings) on five continents, he has remained relatively less known worldwide in general, and virtually unknown in Central and Eastern Europe in particular. The paper intends to salute his achievements with reviewing his life and professional carrier with some selected projects, including his ’brand’, his impact and some lessons for contemporary professional practice. It is largely based on my recent research that concludes in the publication of a monography, due in December 2018, in Hungary.

Open access
The Turn-of-the-Century Monument Protection Practice in Light of Ernő Foerks’s Work

Abstract

Present paper is about Ernő Foerk’s several architectural works which involved monument preservation. Questions about the theory and practice of monument preservation are surveyed, focusing on restoration and reconstruction in Hungary in the marked period.

Open access
The Survey Program of Ernő Foerk on the Türbe of Pécs

Abstract

Ernő Foerk (1868-1934) born 150 years ago has significant oeuvre in the field of monument preservation and architectural education. As professor, one of his achievements was the organisation of summer survey camps named as ‘szünidei felvételek’ (vacation records) which was also accessible in published form. In the year of 1917 under his supervision, his students have surveyed all the scored Ottoman monuments of Hungary. In the following year these survey drawings were published with a brief summary of the history of Ottoman architecture in the territory of Hungary. Our paper is to submit the general circumstances of the Ottoman survey program supervised by Ernő Foerk with its historical background and the analysis of the methodology of the survey by the example of the türbe of Pécs.

Open access
Ernő Foerk and Gyula Sándy’s Tüköry Mansion in Dioš, Croatia: Genealogy of Architectural and Stylistic Features

Abstract

Tüköry Mansion in Dioš (Diósszentpál), Croatia, was designed by architects Ernő Foerk and Gyula Sándy in 1904. It is situated near the Central Slavonian town of Končanica and in close proximity of Daruvar, on an estate that belonged to Tüköry family. The late-historicist country house was commissioned by Paula von Falkenberg, a widow of Alajos Tüköry de Algyest, as a permanent residence for her and her three children. It was built in the eclectic late-historicist style of fin-de-siècle Hungary, highly inspired by the late-mediaeval art and architecture of northern Italy. Those stylistic influences were strongly manifested in the architectural design of the mansion, but even more its great hall, the focal point of its layout, designed in 1904–05. Based on both archival and terrain research, this paper aims to determine the main factors of cultural and architectural identity of the mansion by elucidating its history and stylistic genealogy.

Open access