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The History of Money in Montenegro

Abstract

The paper depicts the history of using money in Montenegro covering the period before the Christ until nowadays. Montenegro mostly used foreign currencies throughout its long history, these being Roman, Austro-Hungarian, Turkish, Venetian, and even the Napoleon (French gold coin) money. The first ideas for Montenegro’s own money came from the Bishop Petar Petrovic Njegoš in the 19th century. The first Montenegrin money, the Perper, was minted in 1906. The King Nikola`s Decree as of 11 April 1906 authorized the Ministry of Finance to mint the nickel and bronze coins. Silver and gold coins were minted later. The Perper disappeared from the scene with Montenegro’s joining the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, putting into circulation the Dinar, a currency of the newly established state. Montenegro, being a part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, used the Dinar as its currency after World War II until 1999. Dual currency system consisting of the German Mark and the Dinar was introduced in late 1999, whereby the German Mark became the only legal tender in 2001. With the introduction of the Euro the German Mark was replaced and the Euro became the official means of payment.

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Azerbaijan in the account of the trip to the East by Felice De Vecchi (1841-1842)

Abstract

The article aims to illustrate how Azerbaijan appeared in the eyes of an Italian who, in the first half of the nineteenth century, had the opportunity to visit it during a trip to Constantinople. Between 1841 and 1842, Felice De Vecchi, a wealthy Milanese passionate about painting and travel, embarked on a journey, together with his naturalist friend Gaetano Osculati, to Constantinople and then, through Persia, visited India. He kept a diary of that journey, only recently found in its almost totality, dedicating an entire chapter to Azerbaijan, the “land of fires”. From his account, rich in anthropological and pictorial notations, emerges a very well-defined sketch that does not hide the wonder of those who meet housing situations and customs far from their country of origin. In order not to lose the most emotional component contained in De Vecchi’s writing, the frequent quotations of passages from the diary are presented in the English translation, followed by the original text in nineteenth-century Italian.

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History and Debut of the Ski-Mountaineering

Abstract

Since ancient times, skiing has been a way of moving, born out of a spirit of survival. The usefulness of this means of transportation has undergone numerous transformations with implications in terms of utility-applied aspect as well as in the area of sports and recreation. Military Physical Education, as a component of military training, includes utility-applied skiing, focusing in particular on cross-country skiing and ski touring. The modern battlefield requires military training in increasingly complex and new areas in this century, with a focus on the formation of well-trained and multispecialized armies of professionals, to the detriment of mass armies. Ski-mountaineering has increasingly evolved over the last few years, due to the possibility of reaching relatively fast on the ridge tips and lowering even faster, eliminating the barriers imposed by the relief. As the name calls it, it combines the techniques and procedures of skiing with mountaineering.

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American Misions in Albania during World War II

Abstract

As is known historically, part of the World Anti-Fascist Grand Coalition was also another great ally, United States. Even the allies had issued the Declaration of December 1942, for recognition of the anti-fascist resistance of the Albanian people, as well as Great Britain and the Soviet Union, making it part of the International Coalition and part of his war against the common enemies nazi and fascists. Nevertheless, beyond the lack of these interests, the Americans under the World Anti-Fascist Grand Coalition few months after the british began in the tiny Balkan military missions, although few toward British ally.

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Business History in Poland: Current State and Future Potential

Abstract

Purpose: This article explores the gap in the business history literature devoted to Central and Eastern Europe and discusses the potential of conducting business history research in Poland. Methodology: This is an explorative and tentative study based on a recently developed database of 387 Polish companies which are more than 100 years old. Findings: The article explores the reasons behind the lack of business history debate in the Polish academia and discusses its future potential. We argue that given the size of population and a unique historical context, the Polish sample is worth studying as it can provide valuable contributions to well established debates in the field of business history debates covering issues such as continuity, longevity, and survival strategies. Research limitations and implications: This is an explorative and tentative study and therefore has several limitations, including a limited scope of companies included in the database, sources of data, and poor quality of corporate archives. Originality and value: This is the first article explicitly discussing the potential of conducting business history studies in the context of empirical data concerning Polish long-lived companies.

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Continuity of Narratives: Reinterpretations of Polish Business History

Abstract

Purpose: This article seeks to identify the similarities and differences in the narratives of corporate histories published in different periods of time.

Methodology: This study is based on a comparative content analysis of corporate histories of three pharmaceutical plants operating under the “Polfa” Union of the Pharmaceutical Industry based in Poland.

Findings: Corporate histories change depending on the period in which a given history is published. The study reveals that corporate history depends on the nature of the state authority in power at a given time.

Research limitations and implications: This exploratory study concentrates on examination of four corporate histories and contributes to the research on the “uses of the past” in organization studies. Nevertheless, it has several limitations, including a limited number of companies included in the analysis and the adoption of a qualitative approach only.

Originality and value: This is the first article that focuses on a comparative content analysis of corporate histories published at different times in search of the similarities and differences in the domain of corporate narrative.

Open access
The Unwritten History in our Textbooks

Abstract

In his book “The Dacians”, Hadrian Daicoviciu showed that “only a few pages have been preserved of the great book of this people’s ancient history; dozens of pages, undoubtedly among the most interesting, were lost forever and many, perhaps even more interesting, were never written by ancient authors”. There is a text that keeps coming to my mind very often, especially lately, because I have noticed that there is a tendency to remove or skip several pages of our history. The mission of a historian is to try to find out the historical truth with as many pages as possible. We should not overlook, we should not mitigate anything from our past. The lost or unwritten pages of history hinder this mission, it is true, but what should we do about the pages that were written and, deliberately, are not included in the history books?

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The History of Pentathlon Competitions

Abstract

The Pentathlon is a combined athletic discipline of the ancient Olympic Games. A detailed exploration of the ancient Olympic competitions in general and of the pentathlon, in particular, allow us to discover1200 years of sport history. The spectacle of the pentathlon contest, the method of determining a winner, the order of the five disciplines is simply fascinating. The modern Olympic Games redefined the pentathlon among the Olympic disciplines. Under the name of the modern pentathlon, it gradually regained its fame won in antiquity. The military pentathlon is a variant of the modern pentathlon deployed within the military organization and is considered the king of military sports. The evolution of the modern battlefield, strongly influenced by the modern combat technique, will surely change the pentathlon contest register. Even if respect for the Olympic spirit is desired, the pentathlon must take into account the evolution of the contemporary society to keep its attractiveness.

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The Specificities of the Relationship of the Comparative and the Historical Methods in the Research of Political History

Abstract

This paper discusses the issue of the specificities of the relationship of the comparative and the historical methods in the research of political history. We find examples of the relationship of the comparative and the historical methods in the research of political history in works of modern historiography. Contemporary political history studies various forms of political reality, a variety of themes and those subject to fad, like other branches of history. The analysis has shown that all general scientific methods, particularly the historical method, as well as the comparative method, enable the scientific cognition of social, historical and political phenomena and processes, which also applies to the research of political history.

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Waqf Between the Past and Present

Abstract

Waqf plays a very important role in Muslim societies. It has been the main source for various public services provided to communities. It has been marginalized as a mere charity, although it has historically been successful in producing sustainable income and reducing poverty levels in Muslim countries. Traditionally, the creation of Waqf is inculcated in Muslims’ culture, and included all walks of life. It has also contributed to the service of man in various areas of development. Nonetheless, in modern times, Waqf has seen a declining role, which raises a number of questions as to what factors actually led to an earlier growth of Waqf, and what was the factor associated with its later decline. This review propagates a historical narrative of Waqf, highlighting the reasons for its decline and the need for reform. The paper concludes that if Muslims have good governments that can manage the funds are transparent, reformulates the laws governing Waqf, and design an integrated network of sciences to monitor issues and problems; they can realistically revive the practice of Waqf. The proper management and disbursement of Waqf can become a great source of revenue for the Ummah.

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