The Beginings of Skilled Trade Enterprise in the Czech Lands
Development of free enterprise in the middle of the 19th century, which was based on capital relations in the sphere of both production and market, was incompatible with the old system of guild craft and its complicated regulations. The Law of the Trade Code from 1859 abolished all measures that had been in effect until then and introduced trade freedom within the new economic policy and the needs of modern enterprise. According to the law, all citizens had theoretically the access to all craft trades after paying the set taxes - this resulted in a huge wave of trades being set up. Freedom of production as well as sales was proclaimed. Commercial Code from 1862, by which the absolute free competitiveness in business ventures had been legalized, became an organic amendment to the Trade Code from 1859. The article deals with the concepts of trade, a practice of its gaining or losing, it pays attention to a number of amendments. Trade legislation was connected with commercial activity and its conditions. An important role in the support of commercial activities was played by trade and commercial associations - the article describes their long history from their formation in 1850 up to their dissolution in 1948. Working of firms in the branch of industry, commerce and craft trades was strongly influenced by licensing authorities that directly permitted or refused trade licenses. The last chapter focuses on the Law against unfair competition from 1927 that was passed as the important reaction to business practice.
The article analyses how historical events shape generalized trust in contemporary Polish society. The analysis consists of a set of logistic regression models. The impact of historical variables is controlled for age, sex, education and the size of the municipality. This is the first quantitative study on Poland that links historical events with the current levels of trust among Polish citizens. The common knowledge is that the Partitions of Poland had negative impact on trust. Literature on the topic hints that historical demo? graphics should play a role too. The findings suggest that Partitions had little impact with only Greater Poland and Pomerania having lower levels of generalized trust. Historical literacy rate and the presence of Ukrainian or Belarusian population are negatively associated with generalized trust while the abrupt migrations after the World War I are positively associated. The rapid character of migration is supposed to positively impact generalized trust by forcing individuals to cooperate and rely on people with whom they have no personal ties.
The income theory of money was conceived in the 19th century, and in the first half of the 20th century it formed the backbone of all the main monetary approaches of the time. Yet, since it did so mostly implicitly rather than explicitly, and since the later developments moved economic theory in a different direction, the income theory of money is hardly remembered at present. While mainly accounting for the origins of the approach, I am also offering a brief comparison with the present mainstream economics and I shortly address the question of the possible future of the theory too. The income theory of money explains how nominal prices are formed by interaction of nominal expenditures streams with real streams of goods sold. While various ideas leading to this theory were expressed already by John Law, Richard Cantillon, and Jean-Baptiste Say, it is perhaps only Thomas Tooke whom we might want to call the originator of the theory. Within the Classical School of Political Economy, Tooke's ideas were further elaborated by John Stuart Mill. The theory reached a momentous formulation in the works of Knut Wicksell, in many respects a similar exposition was delivered also by Friedrich Wieser. The recognition of the theory was impaired by a change of the main-stream paradigm as well as by a surge in emphasis laid on the quantitative modelling in economics. Yet, there are certain fundamental questions of the monetary theory which the general equilibrium style models cannot cope with, while the income theory of money can, at least to a certain degree. This might give the theory some hope for the future.
This article is a concise introduction into the history of economics in totalitarian Poland in 1949-1989. In it, I attempt to show the degradation of economics in Poland in this period. The main theses of the article are three. First, academic economics and the institutions necessary for the normal functioning of science were destroyed in Poland at the turn of the 1940s and 1950s. Pseudo science was substituted for the science of economics. Second, these events had a damaging impact on the quality of research in the years that followed. In my opinion, the alleged achievements of Polish economists, e.g., Oskar Lange's monograph Ekonomia polityczna, as well as the works of Włodzimierz Brus and members of the so-called “Wakar School,” were of only “outside” importance. Third, after 1949, the teaching of economics degenerated as well.
In effect, the achievements of Polish economists in the period 1949-1989 are negligible. They did not contribute significantly to the accumulation of true knowledge about the economy. Moreover, in violation of the ideals of science, Polish economists intensely indoctrinated the society, perpetuating the totalitarian system in Poland.