The Beginings of Skilled Trade Enterprise in the Czech Lands
Development of free enterprise in the middle of the 19th century, which was based on capital relations in the sphere of both production and market, was incompatible with the old system of guild craft and its complicated regulations. The Law of the Trade Code from 1859 abolished all measures that had been in effect until then and introduced trade freedom within the new economic policy and the needs of modern enterprise. According to the law, all citizens had theoretically the access to all craft trades after paying the set taxes - this resulted in a huge wave of trades being set up. Freedom of production as well as sales was proclaimed. Commercial Code from 1862, by which the absolute free competitiveness in business ventures had been legalized, became an organic amendment to the Trade Code from 1859. The article deals with the concepts of trade, a practice of its gaining or losing, it pays attention to a number of amendments. Trade legislation was connected with commercial activity and its conditions. An important role in the support of commercial activities was played by trade and commercial associations - the article describes their long history from their formation in 1850 up to their dissolution in 1948. Working of firms in the branch of industry, commerce and craft trades was strongly influenced by licensing authorities that directly permitted or refused trade licenses. The last chapter focuses on the Law against unfair competition from 1927 that was passed as the important reaction to business practice.
Many academic disciplines have offered important explanations of various aspects of emotion. In the Preface I try to present a wide range of research and stress that study on emotions had its origins in philosophy.
The subject of the article is the use of methods of event history analysis to assess the fall of prices and the subsequent increase of share prices of companies operating in the construction industry, developers (real estate) and building materials industry compared to other industries. The 328 examined companies were listed on the continuous market and the parallel market on the Stock Exchange in Warsaw. Share prices were observed in the period from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2009 which was based on the earlier observations of stock quotes and the WIG index, the latter reaching its minimum in February 2009. The closing price of a share was taken into account. The 60% decrease and 80% growth in shares prices in particular sectors were analysed. What was assessed was the risk of fall in share prices and their chance for recovery. Additionally, the intensity of the increase of share prices and the probability of failure to reach the limit were examined.
On the Necessity of the History of Geographical Thought
Studies in the area of history and philosophy of geography have disappeared in Poland for the last fifty years. The aim of this paper is to restore its importance and show reasons for its revival. They can be found in societal, scientific, and educational contexts in which we practice geography. History of geographical thought contains numerous ideas which could be useful in activities aimed at understanding and reconciling different visions of reality, since geography is the study of diversity, understood as a source of unity. The most popular example of this is the fundamental principle of classical geography "Unity in diversity", that has been accepted as the banner slogan of contemporary Europe. This example shows that the history of geographical thought is the reservoir of ideas, which still await their rediscovery. It should be also utilized to restore geography's identity and rationale, as well as to create new lines of thought which could make geography a socially relevant field.
Perspectives on Federalism is closing its seventh year and its issue 2/2015 confirms the interdisciplinary nature of this intellectual enterprise. This issue is a very rich one, as it includes legal, historical and philosophical contributions. In spite of the evident diversities of these articles, we can identify three main connecting themes: latest developments in EU law, history of thought and European integration, and constitutional developments in national and supranational contexts.
Subject and purpose of work: This work is devoted to presenting the development of the systemic paradigm in marketing science. Its purpose is to discuss the genesis and early stages of the development of systemic paradigm that forms the basis of one of its mainstream marketing theories, known as macromarketing. Materials and methods: The article was created on the basis of the review and synthesis of the previous studies devoted to the issue of systemic approach to marketing and marketing systems. The historical analysis method, combined with the synthesis of earlier research achievements, was employed. Results: The article fills a gap in the area of identifying alternative paradigms of marketing science. It demonstrates how the systemic approach proposed by the forerunners of marketing was developed into a concept which is now the foundation of one of contemporary marketing sub-disciplines - macromarketing. Conclusions: The main conclusion that follows from the conducted analysis is the observation that systemic paradigm is deeply ingrained in the tradition of marketing thought, creating a prominent direction of reflection which is more concerned with the environmental and social role of marketing than with marketing as a management function
Constitutional scholarship in Canada since Confederation has been characterized by two primary narratives. The dualist narrative, which characterized constitutional scholarship between the late-nineteenth and mid-twentieth centuries, focussed on the parallel developments of provincial and federal constitutions. The monist narrative, which has become the dominant model of interpretation since the mid-twentieth century, focusses on the federal constitution as a singular foundation of constitutionalism in Canada. As a result of the shift from dualism to monism, provincial constitutions have become largely ignored in Canada and subsumed by the “mega-constitutional” politics of the federal constitution. This paper examines provincial constitutions to highlight the significant reorientation of constitutional scholarship in Canada over the past 150 years, which has become primarily focussed on post-Confederation constitutional history and written constitutionalism.
The article analyses how historical events shape generalized trust in contemporary Polish society. The analysis consists of a set of logistic regression models. The impact of historical variables is controlled for age, sex, education and the size of the municipality. This is the first quantitative study on Poland that links historical events with the current levels of trust among Polish citizens. The common knowledge is that the Partitions of Poland had negative impact on trust. Literature on the topic hints that historical demo? graphics should play a role too. The findings suggest that Partitions had little impact with only Greater Poland and Pomerania having lower levels of generalized trust. Historical literacy rate and the presence of Ukrainian or Belarusian population are negatively associated with generalized trust while the abrupt migrations after the World War I are positively associated. The rapid character of migration is supposed to positively impact generalized trust by forcing individuals to cooperate and rely on people with whom they have no personal ties.
In this paper, I argue that contemporary political and intellectual conflicts over the right course for European integration are reflected in the historiography of Jean Monnet, the so-called founding father of the European Union (EU). Multiple and mutually antithetical representations of Monnet are explored across the central themes of the contemporary European debate: nationalism, sovereignty, political methodology, and economic ideology. I investigate how the different faces of Monnet are constructed and used to legitimate contradictory scholarly standpoints regarding these central themes. Along the way, I attempt to decipher the puzzle of Monnet’s elevation to the status of a theoretical pioneer in EU Studies. Finally, I also explore how different roles assigned to Monnet in the various narratives of the EU’s origins contribute to the construction of European identity.