Andrzej Nowak, Maciej J. Nowak and Krystyna Cybulska
Microorganisms, usually invisible for us, accompany us always and everywhere. Often we do not realize how decisive its impact on our lives is, how much we use their presence, which of our troubles are the result of their actions, and also how surprising effects result from their activity. Microorganisms also very often play a decisive role in the development of societies, politics and history. One of the most spectacular interventions of micro-organisms in human history include the example of a false “oil fever” that exploded in Australia in the second half of the nineteenth century. It was even more significant to redirect Europe's history in the new direction as a result of the “black death” epidemic in the fourteenth century. Microorganisms have created social conditions for the transition to the next epoch - renaissance, which forms the basis of today's shape. Because of the microorganisms J.F. Kennedy could have been in the 1960 President of the United States of America and to direct her development in the new direction and to stop Khrushchev's expansion into the second hemisphere. Microorganisms, not leaders and generals, won battles and wars. It was Rikketsia prowazeki, not the genius of the opponents, that broke Napoleon's power in Europe. Microorganisms fight disease, improving quality of life and prolonging its period. They allowed to control rabies and numerous infectious diseases. In the economy for the cause of microorganisms, powerful monopolies fell. Bacteria were also used to protect civilians in Poland during World War II. There are many similar stories to tell, stories in which microorganisms play an essential role. But would these stories be about microorganisms only? Or perhaps about people who were fascinated by the microscopic world of microbes discovered his secrets, meaning and ... beauty.
Amazing is the fact that although the organisms have been known since the end of the seventeenth century, effective study of this group of organisms started after about 160 years, in the last two decades of the nineteenth century. The origins of science about bacteria were very difficult, there were many unknowns and conflict information. The research results provided by various scientists created complete chaos. From today’s perspective, it is difficult to imagine how it was possible, do research in such conditions, and obtain reliable results? Yet despite these difficulties, knowledge of our predecessors was neither so small nor so doubtful as might be supposed. On the contrary, it was surprisingly big and wide. What our predecessors knew about bacteria and especially their importance in nature? They knew that bacteria live everywhere, knew about their unlimited spread in the biosphere. The role of microorganisms in the mineralization of organic matter was known, as well as the circulation of matter in nature and role of bacteria in cycles of nutrient elements, and the solar energy as the driving force behind these changes. Today - although we understand these mechanisms much more accurately, we know a lot details and individual changes - but the basic outline of the functioning of the biosphere, valid until today created our predecessors. A look back at the beginning of the microbiology teaches us, how much can be achieved with seemingly primitive methods, if accompanied by a passion for research and imagination.
Photochemistry has been subjected to the enormous development within the last two centuries. This development has been driven mainly by two key factors: inherent scientific thirst for knowledge and worldwide foodstuff and energy needs. Within the development of photochemistry, mutual conditionality of global needs, progress in theory, improving of existing and birth of qualitatively new experimental techniques can be identified. Photochemistry has found its application in various fields of our life, development and protection of the nature.
Tudorache George-Stelian, Ionac Nicoleta, Maco Bogdan and Manea Ancuța
The metadata are defined as the informations behind the data. The purpose of the metadata in meteorological activity is to represent where, when, how and by whom meteorological data has been obtained, colected and recorded. Ideally, a comprehensive metadata base should contain records of all changes that have occured throughout the entire period in which the meteorological station has functioned, the so called „station history”. This paper renders the preliminary results of the analysed wind parameter values (percentages of wind calm and wind frequency) for the time period between 1961 and 2015 at Iași meteorological station. The data were analysed based on various historical metadata information (e.g. the emergence of new construction(s) around the station, relocation of the station, changes in the equipment used to measure the wind etc.), information that may influence the wind parameters measured at Iași weather station.
This paper endeavours to highlight three aspects of postmodern landscape design: theoretical basis, composition and design elements. Postmodern theories, philosophy influenced the language of the postmodern landscape architecture and got materialized in the use of narratives, eclecticism, the Rhizome-principle. Postmodern landscape composition can be associated with anti-hierarchy, unusual structures, landforms, and playful moods. Postmodern design elements consist of the strong graphical use of colour and pavements, bizarre water features, unusual structures and buildings, postmodern sculptures and thematic garden details. 25 analysed projects try to capture the essence of postmodernism in landscape architecture as well as to reveal points of intersection within these projects.
Cultural heritage of the European civilization constitutes cultural and spiritual property of the ancestors, as well as current generations of the Varna city. It represents both material and non-material value, defines the European culture. It includes all the environmental consequences arising from the interaction between the man and the surroundings over the course of history. Assessment of tourist potential of Varna performed on 9-14th September, 2014, by the members of the “European Traveler” scientific circle, students of tourist and recreation, as well as heritage and culture tourism at Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, made it possible to identify the main points of tourist recognizability in relation to the city and region. The staid points are predominantly based on the unique cultural assets of the city and the region - in large measure related to the origins of the European civilization - as well as current cultural events organized in the city.
This paper aims to present the evolution of the meteorological terminology, from the 17th century Grigore Ureche’s chronicle and bishop Amfilohie Hotiniul's manuscript on Physics (Moldavia, late 18th Century) to the mid 19th century writings of Teodor Stamati (Moldova) and Julius Barasch (Wallachia), also considering pop science literature, newspapers, such as “Albina Românească” and weather superstitions published in various calendars, and disputed by intelectuals like Mihail Kogălniceanu.