In this text, I describe a specific way of addressing the past in video games which are set in historical times but at the same time deliberately undermine the facticity of their virtual worlds. By grounding my argument in analyses of two blockbuster productions—Assassin’s Creed (Ubisoft, 2007) and Call of Duty: Black Ops (Activision, 2010)—I introduce and define the notion of “simulational realism”. Both games belong to best-selling franchises and share an interesting set of features: they relate to historical places, events, and figures, establish counter-factual narratives based around conspiracy theories, and—most importantly—display many formal similarities. Like most AAA games, Assassin’s Creed and Black Ops intend to immerse the player in the virtual reality and, for this purpose, they naturalize their interfaces as integral elements of reality. However, in the process of naturalizing simulation, objectivity of the past becomes unthinkable.
In my considerations, I situate this problem in two contexts: 1) of a cultural and epistemic shift in perceiving reality which was influenced by dissemination of digital technologies; 2) Vilém Flusser’s prognosis on the effects of computation on human knowledge. According to Flusser’s theory of communication, history—as a specific kind of human knowledge—emerged out of writing that was always linear and referential. Consequently, the crisis of literary culture resulted in the emergence of new aesthetics and forms of representations which—given their digital origin—dictate new ways of understanding reality. As history is now being substituted by timeless post-history, aesthetic conventions of realism are also transformed and replaced by digital equivalents.
Following Flusser’s theory, I assert that we should reflect on the epistemological consequences of presenting the past as simulation, especially if we consider the belief shared by many players that games like Assassin’s Creed can be great tools for learning history. I find such statements problematic, if we consider that the historical discourse, grounded on fact, is completely incompatible with the aesthetics of sim-realism which evokes no illusion of objective reality.
Different types of formal expression can be found in the modern architecture of the 21st century - in publications, internet resources and in the generalizations of critics. In the context of the synthesis of arts the styles of sculptural architecture and surface architecture are noteworthy. Characteristics of this synthesis are also noticeable in kinetic architecture where the styles of surface kinetic architecture and sculptural kinetic architecture are distinguished. The genesis of images of buildings constructed in these styles is the result of the synthesis of arts; it reflects the development of historical styles as well as the ways of formal expression and their influences in the end of the 20th century and in the 21st century. This paper provides an analysis of constructed objects and proposals put forth in architectural competitions in Latvia’s 21st century modern architecture.
Current affairs have lately shone a less-than-flattering light on various events associated with French planning, but without giving much illumination to the reasons behind them. It is difficult to decode the deep-rooted causes of these phenomena without knowing about the historical, political and administrative context of French planning. We also need to understand the new political issues that are arising and the economic levers acting on a European scale, such as the emergence of new global private operators interacting with local contacts in terms of fundraising, management and urban design.
Der Begriff der Bevölkerung ist – anders als der Raumbegriff – kaum im Fokus der Theoriedebatten der sozialwissenschaftlichen und planerischen Raumdisziplinen anzutreffen. Implizit ist die Bevölkerung jedoch als Komplementär zum Raumbegriff in den raumwissenschaftlichen Ansätzen stets präsent. In diesem Beitrag wird das Objekt der Bevölkerung expliziert und einer wissenschafts-/ideengeschichtlichen Betrachtung unterzogen. Dafür wird erstens der Bevölkerungsbegriff rekonstruiert, den Michel Foucault in seiner Geschichte der Gouvernementalität entfaltet hat. Zweitens werden die großen bevölkerungswissenschaftlichen Debatten des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts aufgerufen (Malthus, Marx und Engels, Schmoller, Oppenheimer, Mombert) und dabei die zunehmende Konkretisierung des Bevölkerungsbegriffs untersucht. Drittens wird die Entwicklung der Bevölkerungswissenschaft zur Bevölkerungspolitik der 1920er bis 1940er Jahre betrachtet und untersucht, auf welche Weise Bewertungssyteme wie Überbevölkerung, Unterbevölkerung und Bevölkerungsoptimum in diesen Diskurs implementiert werden. Im Fazit wird die These vertreten, dass Raumforschung und Raumplanung zum einen das Objekt der Bevölkerung zur Grundlage haben und dass zum anderen dieser Umstand es erfordert, sich mit dem begrifflichen Erbe des Konzepts der Bevölkerung auseinanderzusetzen.
We present the application of dendrochronological dating of the renovation and construction works of churches in the Kaunas and Vilnius regions of Lithuania. The model for the estimation of the missing rings of Scots pine was used in Lithuania for the first time. We have assessed 18 timber cross-sections from nine churches, which were used for the constructions from the second half of the 17th to 19th c. The oldest wood samples were dated from St. Michael’s Church in Vilnius (1668±4) and St. George, the Martyr, (Bernardine) Church in Kaunas (1693±3). The aim of this study was to compare the results of the investigation of timber samples from 9 churches with archival sources and literature data and to reveal the renovation history of the buildings. The study of written historical sources has revealed a lack of recorded building and reconstruction phases of the churches. This fact was later confirmed by the results of dendrochronological dating. The dating of the timber revealed undocumented reconstruction dates in Zapyškis church (1791±3), St. George, the Martyr, (Bernardine) Church in Kaunas (1711±4), St. Anne Church in Skaruliai (1693±3) and Vilnius Cathedral (1814±4).
The article explores how a number of artists have employed the counter/actual as a form of past-talk in a conscious intervention into socio-political and ethical issues arising from the Israeli occupation of Palestine. I argue that such uses of the counter/actual more effectively foreground the injustices arising from the occupation while not only problematising the process of representation but also deconstructing the ways in which histories are intimately intertwined with relations of power and practises of legitimisation; they do not simply reproduce “the (f)actual” but work to repossess the past from the dominance of hegemonic interests.