The paper proposes a reading of romance in terms of postmodernism by establishing a connection between feminism and postmodernism’s questioning of historical and cultural representation. The aim is to reveal how history, no longer governed by the urge to find the “truth”, gives prominence to the uncertain, the extraordinary, the fantastic, which are the main ingredients of romance.
Three essential periods may be singled out in the development of cartography as a science:
1. From the beginning of the last century to the mid-sixties is the period of development of cartography as a distinct science.
2. The period dating from the mid-sixties till the eighties is the golden age of development of theoretical cartography with special amplification of discussions on the subject of the theoretical fundamentals of cartography. At the end of the former period and at the beginning of the latter, cartography finally distinguished itself as an independent science. In 1959, the International Cartographic Association was founded. In 1961, the International Yearbook of Cartography was published for the first time and beginning in 1969, Polski Przegląd Kartograficzny (the Polish Cartographic Review). A year earlier, Komisja Kartograficzna Polskiego Towarzystwa Geograficznego (the Cartographic Commission of the Polish Geographical Society) was established.
3. Since the mid-eighties, and even somewhat earlier, use of new IT technologies, especially interest in the map as an element of geographic information systems, has become the dominating trend in cartography.
My essay intends to analyze the dialectic relationship between historical reality and fiction in the novel The Enchantress of Florence by Salman Rushdie. I will point out a sophisticated and playful story in which the author interweaves elements of history and literature, a game-story that transcends the canonical limits of postmodernism where the novel has constantly been placed by the critical establishment, and goes back to the beginnings, to the anthropological function of play as an essential human activity that was once defined by Johan Huizinga in Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play-element in Culture. Moreover, my paper will explore how this play becomes Rushdie’s attempt to return to the original function of literature which used to enchant and inform at the same time. Once these roots have been reached, however, and the secondary reality of the literary game is well-established, Rushdie manages to break the barriers between reality and fiction, and through versatile textual mechanisms, to intermingle history and reality in a way that makes them merge. Consequently, he composes a play within fiction that is just as powerful as reality itself and suggests the fact that representation has more ontological consistency than the represented body or event itself. We exist as long as we are written and talked about, and nothing in the order of reality can be as powerful as the reality of language.
Snow on the Gridiron: A Brief History of Canadian Football
Football is played throughout the far regions of the world. There is no other sport that brings so many people together locally, nationally, and internationally. Football is not, however, a unified sport with shared rules, customs and histories across time and space. In contrast, football is largely a different sport depending on where it is being played. This paper traces the development of Canadian football as a unique sport with strong similarities to and subtle differences from American football, as well as clear distinctions from forms of football played outside of North America.
Fabiana Martinescu-Bădălan and Robert Stănciulescu
Since ancient times, skiing has been a way of moving, born out of a spirit of survival. The usefulness of this means of transportation has undergone numerous transformations with implications in terms of utility-applied aspect as well as in the area of sports and recreation. Military Physical Education, as a component of military training, includes utility-applied skiing, focusing in particular on cross-country skiing and ski touring. The modern battlefield requires military training in increasingly complex and new areas in this century, with a focus on the formation of well-trained and multispecialized armies of professionals, to the detriment of mass armies. Ski-mountaineering has increasingly evolved over the last few years, due to the possibility of reaching relatively fast on the ridge tips and lowering even faster, eliminating the barriers imposed by the relief. As the name calls it, it combines the techniques and procedures of skiing with mountaineering.
The article seeks the roots of the journalistic concept of objectivity in various theoretical schools. It argues that the concept of objectivity in journalism originates in the positivistic tradition and, furthermore, that it is strongly related to tan earlier theoretical school within historiography. Journalism has made several attempts have been made by journalism to break free of the positivistic objectivity paradigm, none of them very successful, however. The paper discusses each of these attempts. Finally, using the concept of objectivity as a prism, the paper sketches out what might be termed a landscape of journalism theory.
Andrzej Nowak, Maciej J. Nowak and Krystyna Cybulska
Microorganisms, usually invisible for us, accompany us always and everywhere. Often we do not realize how decisive its impact on our lives is, how much we use their presence, which of our troubles are the result of their actions, and also how surprising effects result from their activity. Microorganisms also very often play a decisive role in the development of societies, politics and history. One of the most spectacular interventions of micro-organisms in human history include the example of a false “oil fever” that exploded in Australia in the second half of the nineteenth century. It was even more significant to redirect Europe's history in the new direction as a result of the “black death” epidemic in the fourteenth century. Microorganisms have created social conditions for the transition to the next epoch - renaissance, which forms the basis of today's shape. Because of the microorganisms J.F. Kennedy could have been in the 1960 President of the United States of America and to direct her development in the new direction and to stop Khrushchev's expansion into the second hemisphere. Microorganisms, not leaders and generals, won battles and wars. It was Rikketsia prowazeki, not the genius of the opponents, that broke Napoleon's power in Europe. Microorganisms fight disease, improving quality of life and prolonging its period. They allowed to control rabies and numerous infectious diseases. In the economy for the cause of microorganisms, powerful monopolies fell. Bacteria were also used to protect civilians in Poland during World War II. There are many similar stories to tell, stories in which microorganisms play an essential role. But would these stories be about microorganisms only? Or perhaps about people who were fascinated by the microscopic world of microbes discovered his secrets, meaning and ... beauty.
The article aims to illustrate how Azerbaijan appeared in the eyes of an Italian who, in the first half of the nineteenth century, had the opportunity to visit it during a trip to Constantinople. Between 1841 and 1842, Felice De Vecchi, a wealthy Milanese passionate about painting and travel, embarked on a journey, together with his naturalist friend Gaetano Osculati, to Constantinople and then, through Persia, visited India. He kept a diary of that journey, only recently found in its almost totality, dedicating an entire chapter to Azerbaijan, the “land of fires”. From his account, rich in anthropological and pictorial notations, emerges a very well-defined sketch that does not hide the wonder of those who meet housing situations and customs far from their country of origin. In order not to lose the most emotional component contained in De Vecchi’s writing, the frequent quotations of passages from the diary are presented in the English translation, followed by the original text in nineteenth-century Italian.
The article presents an outline of the 25-year history of the journal “Reports on Geodesy and Geoinformatics”. The source of information was mainly the journal issues themselves. Attention was drawn to changes that the journal underwent over a quarter of a century and its relationship with the Institute of Geodesy and Geodetic Astronomy and later the Department of Geodesy and Geodetic Astronomy. Many issues were dedicated to materials from Polish conferences - those organised by the Institute and the international ones attended by the employees of the Institute, which was indicated in the section on the history of the journal.
The second part of the article concerns the current activity and importance of the journal. Attention was paid to visibility of “Reports on Geodesy and Geoinformatics” in the domestic and foreign databases. Polish databases where the journal is indexed have been identified and briefly described. A separate issue is the evaluation of the journal, which forms a measure of its popularity among consumers. For this purpose, various parameters and biometrics indicators are used. The article used the Web of Science, Google Scholar and the Ministerial List databases for the assessment of the journal.